Mutation Breeding in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.)



The present experiment was conducted on chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Local Golden’ which was irradiated with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Krad of gamma radiation at Department of Chemistry, University of Pune. Objectives were to study morphological change in chrysanthemum due to radiation and to explore the possibility of physical mutagen to create genetic variability in chrysanthemum. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with seven treatments replicated three times. The quantitative and qualitative characters were studied. Reduction in survival percentage, plant height, number of branches, number of suckers per plant was observed after irradiation and with increase in dose of gamma rays.

The result showed that the maximum plant survival was observed in control, while minimum was observed in treatments with 2.5 Krad and 3.0 Krad therefore, the LD50 may be in between 2.5 and 3.0 Krad. Plant height at time of bud initiation and flowering was maximum in control (45.29 cm and 79.90 cm respectively), while minimum in 2.5 and 3.0 Krad treatments. Minimum number of suckers per plant was recorded in 1.5 Krad and 3.0 Krad (12.5 and 11.56 respectively).  Maximum number of branches per plant was recorded in 1.5 Krad (28.29) and 2.0 Krad (28.88). The treatment with 2.5 and 3.0 Krad of gamma rays delayed the flower bud initiation as well as flowering. Among different gamma ray treatments, minimum number of days taken from bud to full bloom was recorded with control (45.60 days) and maximum (54.72 days) was recorded with 2.5 Krad. Yield of flowers and number of flowers per plant was maximum in control i.e. 0.551 kg and 186.00 respectively as compared to other treatments, while minimum was recorded in 3.0 Krad (0.377 kg and 127.57 respectively). Among different gamma ray treatments, the best performance was shown by treatment 3.0 Krad in flower diameter (6.31 cm) and number of ray florets per flower (201.7), followed by 2.5 Krad treatment. Maximum crop duration of 174.09 days was recorded at 3.0 Krad of gamma ray. There was no significant difference in colour of florets of treated and control plants. There were no leaf and floral abnormalities in treated plants. Chimera in ray florets of flower was observed in one plant after 1.5 Krad treatment. The original shape of ray florets was flat with small tube at the base whereas in case of tubular mutant, shape at tip was spoon type and basal portion showed pipe or tube like appearance. 


Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelve, gamma irradiation, mutation, chrysanthemum, LD

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