Feeling Of Oneness Historified

Deeksha Thakur, A.K. Vij, Charu Shri


This literature-review based paper brings forth rapport-building, of all the techniques of NLP. Rapport is an arm of Neuro Linguistic Programming and it is not a new construct; rather it is a well-known feeling of oneness and harmony. The paper encompasses history of the construct, definitions given by various researchers in different contexts, its variables in terms of antecedents and outcomes. The paper also emphasizes on the significance of rapport in faculty-student context in higher education. Good faculty-student relationships lead to good educational and environmental outcomes. It is ‘not so easy’ to master the skill of ‘rapport’ in practice. Therefore, recommendations from literature on building ‘appropriate or optimum’ rapport in faculty-student context have been given here.


NLP; Rapport; Higher Education;Empathy;Connection

Full Text:



Altman, Irwin (1990), “Conceptualizing Rapport,” Psychological Inquiry, 294–323.

Ashforth, Blake E. and Ronald H. Humphrey (1993), “Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity,” Academy of Management Review, 18 (January), 88-115.

Bandler, & Grinder. (1979). Frogs into Princes.

Bernieri, Frank J. (1988), “Coordinated Movement and Rapport in Teacher-Student Interactions,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 12 (Summer), 120-38.

Brill, S. F. (n.d.). The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement/Classics in the History of Psychology. Retrieved Oct 10, 2016, from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Freud/History/

Brooks, Michael (1989), Instant Rapport. New York: Warner Books.

Buskist, W., & Saville, B.K. (2001). Rapport-building: Creating positive emotional

contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. APS Observer. 14, 12-13.

Campbell, K., & Davis, L. (2006). The Sociolinguistic Basis of Managing Rapport When Overcoming Buying Objections. Journal of Business Communication, 43-46.

Campbell, K., White, C., & Johnson, D. (2003). Leader-Member Relations as a Function of Rapport Mananegement. Journal of Business Communication, 170-194.

Carey, John C., Dinah L. Hamilton, and Garth Shanklin (1986), “Development of an Instrument to Measure Rapport between College Roommates,” Journal of College Student Personnel, 27 (May), 269-73.

Catt, S., Miller, D., & Schallenkamp, K. (2007). You are the Key: Communicate for Learning

Effectiveness. Education, 127, 369-377.

Chickering, A.W. and Gamson, Z.F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7.

Coan, G. (2001). Rapport: Definition and Dimensions. Advances in Consumer Research, 333-337.

Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Degnen, L. T., & Rosenthal, R. (1990). The Nature of Rapport and Its Nnonverbal Correlates. Psychological Inquiry, 285-293.

Dell, Sherry A. (1991), “Relational Communication and Organizational Customer Loyalty (Customer Loyalty),” doctoral dissertation, University of Denver.

Desai, S., Damewood, E., & Jones, R. (2001). Be a good teacher and be seen as a good teacher. Journal of Marketing Education, 23, 136-144. doi:10.1177/0273475301232007

Freud, S. (1924). On the history of the psycho-analytic movement. In J. Riviere (Trans.) & E. Jones (Ed.),Collected papers (Vol. I, pp. 287-359). London:Hogarth. (Original work published 1914).

Frisby, B. N., & Martin, M. (2010). Instructor-Student and Student-Student Rapport in the

Classroom. Communication Education, 59, 146-164.

Frisby, B. N., & Myers, S. A. (2008). The Relationships among Perceived Instructor Rapport,

Student Participation, and Student Learning Outcomes. Texas Speech Communication Journal,33, 27-34.

Gillespie, M. (2002). Student–teacher connection in clinical nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(6), 566–576.

Gorham, J., & Christophel, D. M. (1990). The relationship of teachers’use of humor in the classroom to immediacy and student learning.Communication Education, 39(1), 46-62.

Granitz, N., Koernig, S. K., & Harich, K. R. (2009). Now It’s Personal: Antecedents and Outcomes of Rapport Between Business Faculty and Their Students. Journal of Marketing Education, 52-65.

Gremler, D. D., & Gwinner, K. P. (2000). Customer-Employee Rapport in Service Relationships. Journal of Service Research, 82-104.

Gremler, D. D., & Gwinner, K. P. (2008). Rapport-Building Behaviors Used by Retail Employees. Journal of Retailing, 308-324.

Goudy,W. J., & Potter, H. R. (1976). Interview rapport: Demise of a concept.

Public Opinion Quarterly, 39(4), 529-543.

Gurland, S. T., & Grolick, W. S. (2003). Children's expectancies and perceptions of adults: effects on rapport. Child Development, 74(4), 1212-1224

Grunenwald, J. P., & Ackerman, L. (1986). A modified delphi approach for the development of student evaluations of faculty teaching. Journal of Marketing Education, 8(2), 32-38. doi:10.1177/027347538600800206

Haynes, L. & Backell, B. (2011). First-class teaching: Building rapport between teachers and students. In A.Stewart (Ed.), JALT2010 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT.

Heintzman M., Leathers D.G., Parrott R.L. & Cairns A.B. III (1993) Non-verbal rapport building behaviors' effect on perceptions of a supervisor. Management Communication Quarterly 7(2), 181-208.

Holden, N. (2002). Cross-Cultural Management: A Knowledge Management Perspective. England: Harlow.

Holmes, J., & Marra, M. (2004). Relational Practice in the Workplace: Women's Talk or Gendered Discourse. Language in Society, 377-398.

Ivey, Allen E. and Authler, Jerry (1978), Microcounseling:Innovations in Interviewing, Counseling, Psychotherapy,and Psychoeducation, Springfield, Illinois:

Charles C. Thomas.

Kelley, C. A., Conant, J. S., & Smart, D. T. (1991). Master teaching revisited:Pursuing excellence from the students’ perspective. Journal ofMarketing Education, 13, 1-10.

Ketrow, Sandra M. (1991), “Nonverbal Communication and Client Satisfaction in Computer-Assisted Transactions,” Management Communication Quarterly, 5 (November), 192-219.

L, R., Harris, A., & Burton, R. (2015). Saving Face: Managing Rapport in a Problem-Based Learning Group. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11-24.

LaBahn, DouglasW. (1996), “Advertiser Perceptions of Fair Compensation, Confidentiality, and Rapport,” Journal of Advertising Research, 28-38.

LaFrance, M., & Broadbent, M. (1976). Group rapport: Posture sharing as a nonverbal indicator.Group and Organization Studies, 1, 328–333.

LaFrance, Marianne (1979), “Nonverbal Synchrony and Rapport: Analysis by the Cross-Lag Panel Technique,” Social Psychology Quarterly, 42 (March), 66-70.

Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Merton, R. K. (1954). Friendship as social process: A substantive and methodological analysis. In M. Berger, T. Abel, & C. H.Page (Eds.), Freedom and control in modern society (pp. 18-66). New York: Van Nostrand.

Lincoln, D. J. (2008). Drama in the Classroom: How and Why Marketing Educators Can Use Nonverbal Communication and Enthusiasm to Build Student Rapport. Marketing Education Review, 53-65.

Lowman, J. (1995). Mastering the techniques of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lowman, J. (1994). Professors as performers and motivators.College Teaching, 42, 137–141

Macintosh, G. (2009), “The role of rapport in professional services: antecedents and outcomes”,Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp. 71-79.

McDermott, I., & Jago, W. (2002). The NLP Coach: A Comprehensive Guide to Personal Well-Being and Professional Success. London: Piatkus Books.

McLaughlin, Darlene Magito and Carr S Edward G. (2005), “Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior: Assessment and Intervention,”Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 68–91.

Murray, H.G. (1985). Classroom teaching behaviors related to college teaching effectiveness. In J.G. McDonald and A.M. Sullivan (Eds.), Using research to improve teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Murray, H. (1997). Effective teaching behaviors in the college classroom. In R. Perry & J. Smart (Eds.), Effective teaching in higher education: Research and practice (pp. 171–204). New York: Agathon.

Nickels, W. G., Everett, R. F., & Klein, R. (1983). Rapport Building for Sales People: A Neuro Linguistic Approach. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 1-7

P., P. (2010). SMALL TALK, RAPPORT,AND INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE. Journal of Business Communication, 455-476.

Park, R., & Burgess, E. (1924). Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Pianta, R. D. (1991). Student Teacher Relationship Scale. Psychological Assessment Resource.

Pianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education (2nd ed.). London: Routledge & Falmer.

Rapport. (n.d.). Retrieved Sept 20, 2016, from www.en.wikipedia.org: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapport

Reis, H. T., & Sprecher, S. (Eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of human relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412958479

Robertson, T., Ham, J., & Min, H. (2014). The Formation of Rapport Between Korean Students and International Faculty. International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information, 6203-6209.

Robinson, L.& Harris, A.(2015). Saving face: Managing rapport in a Problem-Based Learning group. Active Learning in Higher Education. Vol. 16(1) 11–24

Rodabaugh, R.C. (1996). Institutional commitment to fairness in college teaching. In L. Fisch (Ed.), Ethical dimensions of college and university teaching: Understanding and honoring the special relationship between teachers and students. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 66, 37-46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rodriguez, J. I., Plax, T. G., & Kearney, P. (1996). Clarifying the Relationship between Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy and Student Cognitive Learning: Affective Learning as the Central CausalMediator. Communication Education, 45, 293-305.

Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. The Urban Review, 3(1), 16-20.

Shapiro, Steve (1989), Building Proper Rapport Enhances Guest Relations,Restaurants and Institutions, 22.

Spencer-Oatey, Helen (2002), “Managing Rapport in Talk: Using Rapport Sensitive Incidents to Explore the Motivational Concerns Underlying the Management of Relations,” Journal of Pragmatics, 529–45.

Thompson, J., Courtney, L., & Dickson, D. (2002). The Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming on Organisational and Individual Performance: A Case Study. Journal of European Induatrial Ttraining, 292-298.

Tickle-Degnen, Linda and Robert Rosenthal (1987), Group Rapport and Nonverbal

Behavior, in Group Processes and Intergroup Relations: Review of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 9, Hendrick Clyde (Ed.), Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 113–36.

Tickle-Degnen, Linda and Robert Rosenthal (1990), The Nature of Rapport and Its Nonverbal Correlates, Psychology Inquiry, 1 (4), 285–93.

Tripathi, S. S. (2012). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: A Tool for Developing Behavioral Skills and Competencies. IUP.

Velez, J.J. 2008. Instructor communication behaviorsand classroom climate: Exploring relationships with student self-efficacy and task value motivation. PhD

Diss., Dept. of Agr. Communication, Education andLeadership, The Ohio State Univ., 2120 Fyffe Road,Columbus, OH.

Velez, J.J. and J. Cano. 2008. The relationship between teacher immediacy and student motivation. Jour. of Agricultural Education 49(3): 76-86.

Waldo, M. , & Fuhriman, A. (1981). Roommate relationships,communication skills, and psychological adjustment in residence halls. The Journal of College and University Student Housing, 11, 31-35.

Webb, N. G., & Barrett, L. O. (2014). Student Views of Instructor-Student Rapport in the College Classroom. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15-28.

Whitman, N.A. (1987). Reducing stress among students; ERIC Database ED284526. www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC Digests/ed284526.html.

Wilson, J., Ryan, R. G., & Pugh, J. (2010). Professor–Student Rapport Scale Predicts Student. Teaching of Psychology, 246-251.

Wong. (n.d.). Lessons from the Enron Debacle: Corporate Culture Matters. Retrieved Nov 28, 2016, from International Network on Personal Meanings: http://www.meaning.ca/archives/archive/art_lessons-from-enron_P_Wong.htm

Wong, L. (1998). The Ethics of Rapport: Institutional Safeguards, Resistance, and Betrayal. Qualitative Inquiry, 178-199.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.