Patterns of Knowing in Breast Cancer Screening among Minority Women in the United States: Theoretical Application

Manal Alatrash, Muder Alkrisat


Carper identified four fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing, empirics, esthetics, personal knowing, and ethics, which are necessary for the teaching, practice, and research. A different method of analysis is required to find evidence, understand each pattern and develop knowledge about each pattern. In this paper the authors try to apply types of knowing into a suggested model about the behaviors and barriers to breast cancer (BC) screening among minority women in the United States.


Carper; empirical, Knowing ethical ; Cancer; Minority; aesthetics; Sociopolitical

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