Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-Linked Glycoproteins (Siblings): A Study On Human Salivary Gland Cancer

Goher Haneef, Atta Rasool, Muhammad Sohaib Aslam


Salivary gland carcinomas constitute a rare but deadly group of head and neck cancers, but timely diagnosis is often delayed due to inherent variability in etiology, heterogeneity and histopathological characterization. SIBLINGs are a family of secreted glycophosphoproteins that include osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE). SIBLINGs were first discovered in bone and teeth, and were considered to be exclusively expressed in mineralized tissue. In addition to mineralized tissue, SIBLINGs have now been shown to have variable expression in normal, non-mineralized tissue and in cancers. However, there have been no studies evaluating SIBLING expression in human salivary gland cancers. Our study tested the hypothesis that SIBLINGs, specifically, BSP, DSPP and OPN, would be significantly overexpressed in human salivary gland cancer. We also hypothesized that the cancer secretome would influence SIBLING expression in normal salivary gland cells. Methods: Normal and cancerous human salivary gland tissue obtained from the NDRI were processed using routine immunohistochemistry techniques to evaluate expression of BSP, DSP, and OPN. In addition normal HSG cell line and cancer HTB-41 cell line were evaluated using immunofluorescence techniques to localize expression of BSP, DSP and OPN. Normal HSG, cancer HTB-41 and HSG* cells (normal HSG cells exposed to a cancer HTB-41 secretome) were propagated using routine cell culture techniques for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Western blotting techniques were utilized ii to quantify and compare SIBLING protein expression levels in HSG, HTB-41 and HSG* cells. Normal HSG, cancer HTB-41, and HSG* cells were processed via immunoflourescence in order to observe localization of SIBLINGs. Results: Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed increased expression of SIBLINGs in human salivary gland cancers. Furthermore, immunoflourescence revealed distinct localization of SIBLING proteins in HSG and HTB-41 cell lines. In terms of HSG*, it was found that cells exposed to cancer secretome exhibited similar SIBLING expression to HTB-41. Conclusion: Our studies confirm that SIBLING proteins are selectively expressed in human salivary gland cancer. Also, the cancer secretome is found to affect SIBLING expression in normal cells, similar to HTB-41 cancer cell lines.


small integrin-binding ligand, n-linked glycoproteins (siblings), human salivary gland cancer

Full Text:



Almeida d, Gregio, Machado de Sousa SO, Lima d, Azevedo. 2008. Saliva composition and functions: A comprehensive review. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 9:072-080.

Alvares K, Kanwar YS, Veis A. 2006.Expression and potential role of dentin phosphophoryn (DPP) in mouse embryonic tissues involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and branching morphogenesis.DevDyn 235:2980-2990.

Baba O, Qin C, Brunn JC, Jones JE, Wygant JN, McIntyre BW, Butler WT. 2004a. Detection of dentin sialoprotein in rat periodontium.Eur J Oral Sci 112:163-170.

Baba O, Qin C, Brunn JC, Wygant JN, McIntyre BW, Butler WT. 2004b.Colocalization of dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein at late stages of rat molar development. Matrix Biol 23:371-379.

Bellahcene A, Albert V, Pollina L, Basolo F, Fisher LW, Castronovo V. 1998. Ectopic expression of bone sialoprotein in human thyroid cancer. Thyroid 8:637-641.

Bellahcene A, Antoine N, Clausse N, Tagliabue E, Fisher LW, Kerr JM, Jares P, Castronovo V. 1996a. Detection of bone sialoprotein in human breast cancer tissue and cell lines at both protein and messenger ribonucleic acid levels. Lab Invest 75:203-210.

Bellahcene A, Castronovo V. 1997. Expression of bone matrix proteins in human breast cancer: potential roles in microcalcification formation and in the genesis of bone metastases. Bull Cancer 84:17-24.

Bellahcene A, Castronovo V, Ogbureke KU, Fisher LW, Fedarko NS. 2008. Small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs): multifunctional proteins in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 8:212-226.

Bellahcene A, Maloujahmoum N, Fisher LW, Pastorino H, Tagliabue E, Menard S, Castronovo V. 1997. Expression of bone sialoprotein in human lung cancer.Calcif Tissue Int 61:183-188.

Bellahcene A, Menard S, Bufalino R, Moreau L, Castronovo V. 1996b. Expression of bone sialoprotein in primary human breast cancer is associated with poor survival. Int J Cancer 69:350-353.

Bellahcene A, Merville MP, Castronovo V. 1994. Expression of bone sialoprotein, a bone matrix protein, in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 54:2823-2826.

Bianco P, Fisher LW, Young MF, Termine JD, Robey PG. 1991. Expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) in developing human tissues.Calcif Tissue Int 49:421-426.

Brown LF, Berse B, Van de Water L, Papadopoulos-Sergiou A, Perruzzi CA, Manseau EJ, Dvorak HF, Senger DR. 1992. Expression and distribution of osteopontin in human tissues: widespread association with luminal epithelial surfaces. MolBiol Cell 3:1169-1180.

Brown LF, Papadopoulos-Sergiou A, Berse B, Manseau EJ, Tognazzi K, Perruzzi CA, Dvorak HF, Senger DR. 1994. Osteopontin expression and distribution in human carcinomas. Am J Pathol 145:610-623.

Butler WT, Brunn JC, Qin C, McKee MD. 2002. Extracellular matrix proteins and the dynamics of dentin formation. Connect Tissue Res 43:301-307.

Caers J, Gunthert U, De Raeve H, Van Valckenborgh E, Menu E, Van Riet I, Van Camp B, Vanderkerken K. 2006. The involvement of osteopontin and its receptors in multiple myeloma cell survival, migration and invasion in the murine 5T33MM model. Br J Haematol 132:469-477.

Chabas D. 2005.[Osteopontin, a multi-faceted molecule]. Med Sci (Paris) 21:832-838.

Chang HY, Hor SY, Lim KP, Zain RB, Cheong SC, Rahman MA, Karsani SA. Oral cancer secretome: identification of cancer-associated proteins. Electrophoresis 34:2199-2208.

Chaplet M, De Leval L, Waltregny D, Detry C, Fornaciari G, Bevilacqua G, Fisher LW, Castronovo V, Bellahcene A. 2003. Dentin matrix protein 1 is expressed in human lung cancer. J Bone Miner Res 18:1506-1512.

Chaplet M, Waltregny D, Detry C, Fisher LW, Castronovo V, Bellahcene A. 2006. Expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein in human prostate cancer and its correlation with tumor aggressiveness.Int J Cancer 118:850-856.

Chen J, McCulloch CA, Sodek J. 1993a. Bone sialoprotein in developing porcine dental tissues: cellular expression and comparison of tissue localization with osteopontin and osteonectin. Arch Oral Biol 38:241-249.

Chen J, Rodriguez JA, Barnett B, Hashimoto N, Tang J, Yoneda T. 2003. Bone sialoprotein promotes tumor cell migration in both in vitro and in vivo models. Connect Tissue Res 44 Suppl 1:279-284.

Chen J, Sasaguri K, Sodek J, Aufdemorte TB, Jiang H, Thomas HF. 1998. Enamel epithelium expresses bone sialoprotein (BSP). Eur J Oral Sci 106 Suppl 1:331-336.

Chen J, Shapiro HS, Sodek J. 1992. Development expression of bone sialoprotein mRNA in rat mineralized connective tissues. J Bone Miner Res 7:987-997.

Chen J, Singh K, Mukherjee BB, Sodek J. 1993b. Developmental expression of osteopontin (OPN) mRNA in rat tissues: evidence for a role for OPN in bone formation and resorption. Matrix 13:113-123.

Chen JK, Shapiro HS, Wrana JL, Reimers S, Heersche JN, Sodek J. 1991.Localization of bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression to sites of mineralized tissue formation in fetal rat tissues by in situ hybridization. Matrix 11:133-143.

Chen S, Chen L, Jahangiri A, Chen B, Wu Y, Chuang HH, Qin C, MacDougall M. 2008. Expression and processing of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins in mouse odontoblastic cells. Arch Oral Biol 53:879-889.

Chenau J, Michelland S, de Fraipont F, Josserand V, Coll JL, Favrot MC, Seve M. 2009. The cell line secretome, a suitable tool for investigating proteins released in vivo by tumors: application to the study of p53-modulated proteins secreted in lung cancer cells. J Proteome Res 8:4579-4591.

Denhardt DT, Guo X. 1993. Osteopontin: a protein with diverse functions. Faseb J 7:1475-1482.

Di Palma S, Guzzo M. 1993. Malignant myoepithelioma of salivary glands: clinicopathological features of ten cases. Virchows Arch A PatholAnatHistopathol 423:389-396.

El-Tanani MK, Campbell FC, Kurisetty V, Jin D, McCann M, Rudland PS. 2006.The regulation and role of osteopontin in malignant transformation and cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 17:463-474.

Fedarko NS, Jain A, Karadag A, Van Eman MR, Fisher LW. 2001. Elevated serum bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in colon, breast, prostate, and lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res 7:4060-4066.

Fisher LW. DMP1 and DSPP: evidence for duplication and convergent evolution of two SIBLING proteins. Cells Tissues Organs 194:113-118.

Fisher LW, Jain A, Tayback M, Fedarko NS. 2004. Small integrin binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein gene family expression in different cancers. Clin Cancer Res 10:8501-8511.

Fisher LW, Torchia DA, Fohr B, Young MF, Fedarko NS. 2001. Flexible structures of SIBLING proteins, bone sialoprotein, and osteopontin. BiochemBiophys Res Commun 280:460-465.

Furger KA, Menon RK, Tuck AB, Bramwell VH, Chambers AF. 2001. The functional and clinical roles of osteopontin in cancer and metastasis. CurrMol Med 1:621-632.

George A, Srinivasan RSR, Liu K, Veis A. 1999. Rat dentin matrix protein 3 is a compound protein of rat dentin sialoprotein and phosphophoryn. Connect Tissue Res 40:49-57.

Gillespie MB, Albergotti WG, Eisele DW. Recurrent salivary gland cancer.Curr Treat Options Oncol 13:58-70.

Guzzo M, Locati LD, Prott FJ, Gatta G, McGurk M, Licitra L. Major and minor salivary gland tumors. Crit Rev OncolHematol 74:134-148.

Hayashi C, Rittling S, Hayata T, Amagasa T, Denhardt D, Ezura Y, Nakashima K, Noda M. 2007. Serum osteopontin, an enhancer of tumor metastasis to bone, promotes B16 melanoma cell migration. J Cell Biochem 101:979-986.

Hess B. 1994. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and calcium nephrolithiasis. Miner Electrolyte Metab 20:393-398.

Hirota S, Imakita M, Kohri K, Ito A, Morii E, Adachi S, Kim HM, Kitamura Y, Yutani C, Nomura S. 1993. Expression of osteopontin messenger RNA by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.A possible association with calcification. Am J Pathol 143:1003-1008.

Hsieh YH, van der Heyde H, Oh ES, Guan JL, Chang PL. Osteopontin mediates tumorigenic transformation of a preneoplastic murine cell line by suppressing anoikis: An Arg-Gly-Asp-dependent-focal adhesion kinase-caspase-8 axis. MolCarcinog 54:379-392.

Humphrey SP, Williamson RT. 2001. A review of saliva: normal composition, flow, and function. J Prosthet Dent 85:162-169.

Jain A, McKnight DA, Fisher LW, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, Partin AW, Fedarko NS. 2009. Small integrin-binding proteins as serum markers for prostate cancer detection. Clin Cancer Res 15:5199-5207.

Junaid A, Moon MC, Harding GE, Zahradka P. 2007. Osteopontin localizes to the nucleus of 293 cells and associates with polo-like kinase-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C919-926.

Khan SA, Cook AC, Kappil M, Gunthert U, Chambers AF, Tuck AB, Denhardt DT. 2005. Enhanced cell surface CD44 variant (v6, v9) expression by osteopontin in breast cancer epithelial cells facilitates tumor cell migration: novel post-transcriptional, post-translational regulation. ClinExp Metastasis 22:663-673.

Khodavirdi AC, Song Z, Yang S, Zhong C, Wang S, Wu H, Pritchard C, Nelson PS, Roy-Burman P. 2006. Increased expression of osteopontin contributes to the progression of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 66:883-888.

Kolb A, Kleeff J, Guweidhi A, Esposito I, Giese NA, Adwan H, Giese T, Buchler MW, Berger MR, Friess H. 2005. Osteopontin influences the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells and is increased in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Cancer BiolTher 4:740-746.

Lang S, Rotter N, Lorenzen A, Ihrler S, Eckel R, Holzel D, Rasp G, Wollenberg B, Sommer K. 2005a. [Salivary gland carcinomas Part II.Diagnosis and therapy].Hno 53:905-911; quiz 912-903.

Lang S, Rotter N, Lorenzen A, Ihrler S, Eckel R, Holzel D, Rasp G, Wollenberg B, Sommer K. 2005b. [Salivary gland carcinomas.1. Epidemiology, etiology, malignancy criteria, prognostic parameters and classification].Hno 53:817-826; quiz 827-818.

Lee JL, Wang MJ, Sudhir PR, Chen GD, Chi CW, Chen JY. 2007. Osteopontin promotes integrin activation through outside-in and inside-out mechanisms: OPN-CD44V interaction enhances survival in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Cancer Res 67:2089-2097.

Lin Q, Tan HT, Lim HS, Chung MC. Sieving through the cancer secretome.BiochimBiophysActa 1834:2360-2371.

Malaval L, Wade-Gueye NM, Boudiffa M, Fei J, Zirngibl R, Chen F, Laroche N, Roux JP, Burt-Pichat B, Duboeuf F, Boivin G, Jurdic P, Lafage-Proust MH, Amedee J, Vico L, Rossant J, Aubin JE. 2008. Bone sialoprotein plays a functional role in bone formation and osteoclastogenesis. J Exp Med 205:1145-1153.

Mazeron JJ, Noel G, Simon JM, Racadot S, Jauffret E. 2003. [Brachytherapy in head and neck cancers]. Cancer Radiother 7:62-72.

Mazzali M, Kipari T, Ophascharoensuk V, Wesson JA, Johnson R, Hughes J. 2002. Osteopontin--a molecule for all seasons.Qjm 95:3-13.

McKee MD, Pedraza CE, Kaartinen MT. Osteopontin and wound healing in bone. Cells Tissues Organs 194:313-319.

McNabb PC, Tomasi TB. 1981. Host defense mechanisms at mucosal surfaces. Annu Rev Microbiol 35:477-496.

Medina JE. 1998. Neck dissection in the treatment of cancer of major salivary glands.

OtolaryngolClin North Am 31:815-822.

O'Brien ER, Garvin MR, Stewart DK, Hinohara T, Simpson JB, Schwartz SM, Giachelli CM. 1994. Osteopontin is synthesized by macrophage, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells in primary and restenotic human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. ArteriosclerThromb 14:1648-1656.

O'Brien KD, Kuusisto J, Reichenbach DD, Ferguson M, Giachelli C, Alpers CE, Otto CM. 1995.

Osteopontin is expressed in human aortic valvular lesions. Circulation 92:2163-2168.

Oates AJ, Barraclough R, Rudland PS. 1996. The identification of osteopontin as a metastasis-related gene product in a rodent mammary tumour model. Oncogene 13:97-104.

Ogbureke KU, Abdelsayed RA, Kushner H, Li L, Fisher LW. Two members of the SIBLING family of proteins, DSPP and BSP, may predict the transition of oral epithelial dysplasia to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer 116:1709-1717.

Ogbureke KU, Fisher LW. 2004. Expression of SIBLINGs and their partner MMPs in salivary glands. J Dent Res 83:664-670.

Ogbureke KU, Fisher LW. 2005. Renal expression of SIBLING proteins and their partner matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Kidney Int 68:155-166.

Ogbureke KU, Fisher LW. 2007. SIBLING expression patterns in duct epithelia reflect the degree of metabolic activity. J HistochemCytochem 55:403-409.

Ogbureke KU, Nikitakis NG, Warburton G, Ord RA, Sauk JJ, Waller JL, Fisher LW. 2007. Up-regulation of SIBLING proteins and correlation with cognate MMP expression in oral cancer. Oral Oncol 43:920-932.

Ogbureke KU, Weinberger PM, Looney SW, Li L, Fisher LW. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and osteopontin (OPN) at histologically negative surgical margins may predict recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncotarget 3:286-298.

Ophascharoensuk V, Giachelli CM, Gordon K, Hughes J, Pichler R, Brown P, Liaw L, Schmidt R, Shankland SJ, Alpers CE, Couser WG, Johnson RJ. 1999. Obstructive uropathy in the mouse: role of osteopontin in interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis. Kidney Int 56:571-580.

Paltridge JL, Belle L, Khew-Goodall Y.The secretome in cancer progression.BiochimBiophysActa 1834:2233-2241.

Pavlou MP, Diamandis EP. The cancer cell secretome: a good source for discovering biomarkers? J Proteomics 73:1896-1906.

Prasad M, Butler WT, Qin C. Dentin sialophosphoprotein in biomineralization. Connect Tissue Res 51:404-417.

Prasad M, Zhu Q, Sun Y, Wang X, Kulkarni A, Boskey A, Feng JQ, Qin C. Expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein in non-mineralized tissues. J HistochemCytochem 59:1009-1021.

Pritchett J, Harvey E, Athwal V, Berry A, Rowe C, Oakley F, Moles A, Mann DA, Bobola N, Sharrocks AD, Thomson BJ, Zaitoun AM, Irving WL, Guha IN, Hanley NA, Hanley KP. Osteopontin is a novel downstream target of SOX9 with diagnostic implications for progression of liver fibrosis in humans. Hepatology 56:1108-1116.

Qin C, Brunn JC, Cadena E, Ridall A, Butler WT. 2003.Dentin sialoprotein in bone and dentin sialophosphoprotein gene expressed by osteoblasts. Connect Tissue Res 44 Suppl 1:179-183.

Qin C, Brunn JC, Cadena E, Ridall A, Tsujigiwa H, Nagatsuka H, Nagai N, Butler WT. 2002.

The expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein gene in bone. J Dent Res 81:392-394.

Ralhan R. How will increasing our knowledge of the head and neck cancer cells' secretome benefit head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients? Expert Rev Proteomics 9:115-118.

Rangaswami H, Bulbule A, Kundu GC. 2006a. Nuclear factor inducing kinase: a key regulator in osteopontin- induced MAPK/IkappaB kinase dependent NF-kappaB-mediated promatrix metalloproteinase-9 activation. Glycoconj J 23:221-232.

Rangaswami H, Bulbule A, Kundu GC. 2006b. Osteopontin: role in cell signaling and cancer progression. Trends Cell Biol 16:79-87.

Razzouk S, Brunn JC, Qin C, Tye CE, Goldberg HA, Butler WT. 2002.Osteopontin posttranslational modifications, possibly phosphorylation, are required for in vitro bone resorption but not osteoclast adhesion. Bone 30:40-47.

Scatena M, Liaw L, Giachelli CM. 2007. Osteopontin: a multifunctional molecule regulating chronic inflammation and vascular disease. ArteriosclerThrombVascBiol 27:2302-2309.

Seethala RR. 2009. An update on grading of salivary gland carcinomas. Head Neck Pathol 3:69-77.

Seifert G, Donath K. 1976a. Classification of the pathohistology of diseases of the salivary glands - review of 2,600 cases in the Salivary Gland Register.BeitrPathol 159:1-32.

Seifert G, Donath K. 1976b. [Morphology of salivary gland diseases]. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 213:111-208.

Seifert G, Heckmayr M, Donath K. 1977. [Carcinomas in papillary cystadenolymphomas of the parotid gland--definition and differential diagnosis (author's transl)]. Z KrebsforschKlinOnkol Cancer Res ClinOncol 90:25-36.

Seifert G, Langrock I, Donath K. 1976. [A pathological classification of pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands (author's transl)].Hno 24:415-426.

Senger DR, Asch BB, Smith BD, Perruzzi CA, Dvorak HF. 1983.A secreted phosphoprotein marker for neoplastic transformation of both epithelial and fibroblastic cells. Nature 302:714-715.

Senger DR, Perruzzi CA, Papadopoulos A. 1989. Elevated expression of secreted phosphoprotein

I (osteopontin, 2ar) as a consequence of neoplastic transformation. Anticancer Res 9:1291-1299.

Sharp JA, Waltham M, Williams ED, Henderson MA, Thompson EW. 2004. Transfection of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells with bone sialoprotein (BSP) stimulates migration and invasion in vitro and growth of primary and secondary tumors in nude mice. ClinExp Metastasis 21:19-29.

Shiraga H, Min W, VanDusen WJ, Clayman MD, Miner D, Terrell CH, Sherbotie JR, Foreman JW, Przysiecki C, Neilson EG, et al. 1992. Inhibition of calcium oalate crystal growth invitro by uropontin: another member of the aspartic acid-rich protein superfamily. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A 89:426-430.

Sreenath T, Thyagarajan T, Hall B, Longenecker G, D'Souza R, Hong S, Wright JT, MacDougall M, Sauk J, Kulkarni AB. 2003. Dentin sialophosphoprotein knockout mouse teeth display widened predentin zone and develop defective dentin mineralization similar to human dentinogenesisimperfecta type III. J BiolChem 278:24874-24880.

Srivatsa SS, Harrity PJ, Maercklein PB, Kleppe L, Veinot J, Edwards WD, Johnson CM, Fitzpatrick LA. 1997. Increased cellular expression of matrix proteins that regulate mineralization is associated with calcification of native human and porcine xenograftbioprosthetic heart valves. J Clin Invest 99:996-1009.

Sung V, Stubbs JT, 3rd, Fisher L, Aaron AD, Thompson EW. 1998. Bone sialoprotein supports breast cancer cell adhesion proliferation and migration through differential usage of the alpha(v)beta3 and alpha(v)beta5 integrins. J Cell Physiol 176:482-494.

Suzuki S, Haruyama N, Nishimura F, Kulkarni AB. Dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1: Two highly phosphorylated proteins in mineralized tissues. Arch Oral Biol 57:1165-1175.

Takata T, Caselitz J, Seifert G. 1987. Undifferentiated tumours of salivary glands.Immunocytochemical investigations and differential diagnosis of 22 cases.Pathol Res Pract 182:161-168.

Trueb B, Taeschler S, Schild C, Lang NP. 2007. Expression of phosphoproteins and amelotin in teeth. Int J Mol Med 19:49-54.

Tuck AB, Hota C, Chambers AF. 2001. Osteopontin(OPN)-induced increase in human mammary epithelial cell invasiveness is urokinase (uPA)-dependent. Breast Cancer Res Treat 70:197-204.

Verdelis K, Ling Y, Sreenath T, Haruyama N, MacDougall M, van der Meulen MC, Lukashova L, Spevak L, Kulkarni AB, Boskey AL. 2008. DSPP effects on in vivo bone mineralization. Bone 43:983-990.

Waltregny D, Bellahcene A, Van Riet I, Fisher LW, Young M, Fernandez P, Dewe W, de Leval J,

Castronovo V. 1998. Prognostic value of bone sialoprotein expression in clinically localized human prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:1000-1008.

Wang J, Wang L, Xia B, Yang C, Lai H, Chen X. BSP gene silencing inhibits migration, invasion, and bone metastasis of MDA-MB-231BO human breast cancer cells. PLoS One 8:e62936.

Xiao S, Yu C, Chou X, Yuan W, Wang Y, Bu L, Fu G, Qian M, Yang J, Shi Y, Hu L, Han B, Wang Z, Huang W, Liu J, Chen Z, Zhao G, Kong X. 2001. Dentinogenesisimperfecta 1 with or without progressive hearing loss is associated with distinct mutations in DSPP. Nat Genet 27:201-204.

Zhang Q, Fan M, Bian Z, Chen Z, Zhu Q. 2000. Immunohistochemistry of bone sialoprotein and osteopontin during reparative dentinogenesis in vivo. Chin J Dent Res 3:38-43.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.