3s Framework For Elderly Care: A Prospect Analysis

Abubakar Yakubu yakubu

Abstract


A framework involving concepts of social capital, social support and social safety net (3S) for elderly care, may offer one of the most effective ways through which the understanding of religious social capital can be mobilized for effective safety nets within religious communities. This follows the need to overcome potential challenges in elder care, associated with population aging. The main argument posed by the paper is that, social capital remains potential capital unless accompanied by investment and subsequent transformation as an outcome or experience(s). This paper maintains that, as a phenomenon that requires urgent attention, challenges of elderly wellbeing in relation to population aging, can be approached through mobilizing religious social capital, in the creation of informal safety nets. The framework was sourced within the literature on religious social capital, social support, and safety nets theories. The integration between religious social capital and selected social support perspectives, explains how religion served as the basis of social capital formation, while social support served as avenue for investing social capital. In the proposed framework, social capital as an investment will eventually be delivered through socially supportive practices, attitudes, and actions. The result will be safety nets for elderly wellbeing. Furthermore, the framework can provide an overall orienting lens for addressing issues of the elderly population. At the same it can also enable a thorough analysis of the adopted theories to reveal the potentialities of religious social capital, in serving as a safety net for the elderly. However, the model may be limited to societies where religion is the major basis of interaction.


Keywords


Religious Social capital, Social support, Social safety net , informal safety net

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbey, A., Abramis, D., & Caplan, R. (1985). Effects of different sources of social support and social conflict on emotional well-being. Basic and Applied Social. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15324834basp0602_2

Aboderin, I. (2012). Ageing Africa: Opportunities for Development. Global Population Ageing: Peril or Promise? Global Population Ageing: Peril or Promise?, 161(242), 69.

Agarwal, A., Lubet, A., Mitgang, E., Mohanty, S., & Bloom, D. E. (2016). Population Aging in India : Facts , Issues , and Options, (132), 1–24.

Ahmed, H. (2004). Role of zakah and awqaf in poverty alleviation. Retrieved from http://es.nahad.ir/uploads/201.pdf

Aqidah Suhaili Nur. (2016). A Way Forward For Reviving Waqf In High Education Through Collaboration. In Nur Aqidah Suhaili1 (Ed.), INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WAQF AND HIGHER EDUCATION (ISWHE 2016) . ISTANBUL, TURKEY. Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/47155075/Waqf_and_Higher_Education.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1511109006&Signature=8%2BQA9kjUWO5RL1yGOZdsQTLXKgI%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B filename%3DWaqf_and_Higher_Ed

Arnall, A. et al. (2004). Perceptions of informal safety nets: A case study from a South African informal settlement. Development Southern Africa, 3(21), 443–460.

Atia, M. (2011). Islamic approaches to development: A case study of Zakat, Sadaqa and Qurd al Hassan in Contemporary Egypt. 8th International Conference on Islamic Economics and. Retrieved from http://www.iefpedia.com/english/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Mona-Atia.pdf

Babatunji, A. O., Shuaibu, J. Y., Zara, W., Mary, O. A., John, S. B., & Jasper, U. (2015). Assessment of the determinants of healthy ageing among the rural elderly of north-eastern nigeria. Health, 7(June), 754–764. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2015.76090

Barik, D., Council, N., Desai, S., Management, F., Zielinski, A., Halling, A., … World Health Organization. (2015). Managing the Care of Patients With Diabetes in the Home Care Setting. Diabetes Spectrum, 2(1), 162–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61188-9

Bloom, D. E., Chatterji, S., Kowal, P., Lloyd-Sherlock, P., McKee, M., Rechel, B., … Smith, J. P. (2015). Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses. The Lancet, 385(9968), 649–657. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61464-1

Cadmus, E. O., Owoaje, E. T., & Akinyemi, O. O. (2015). Older Persons’ Views and Experience of Elder Abuse in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Aging and Health, 27(4), 711–729. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264314559893

Cai, F., Giles, J., O’Keefe, P., & Wang, D. (2012). The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8685-9

Caplan, G. (1974). Support systems and community mental health: Lectures on concept development. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1974-26064-000

Cherrier, C., Del Ninno, C., & Razmara, S. (2011). MALI Social Safety Nets Africa Social Safety Net and Social Protection Assessment Series.

Cizakca, M. (2004). Cash waqf as alternative to NBFIs bank. Seminar on Nonbank Financial Institutions: Islamic …. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Cizakca+%282004%29++Waqf+&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5

Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/psychosomaticmedicine/Abstract/1976/09000/Social_Support_as_a_Moderator_of_Life_Stress.3.aspx

Cohen, S., & Wills, T. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/bul/98/2/310/

Coleman, J. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology. Retrieved from http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/228943

Cutrona, C., & Russell, D. (1990). Type of social support and specific stress: Toward a theory of optimal matching. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1990-97699-013

Daidone, S., Pellerano, L., Handa, S., & Davis, B. (2015). Is graduation from social safety nets possible? Evidence from sub-saharan africa. IDS Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1111/1759-5436.12132

Dean, H., & Khan, Z. (1997). Muslim perspectives on welfare. Journal of Social Policy. Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-social-policy/article/muslim-perspectives-on-welfare/EF00CC8FCB648813B4C8BA6A04E9CCCB

Devereux, S. (2015). Social Protection and Safety Nets in the Middle East and North Africa. Retrieved from www.ids.ac.uk/publications

Dimkpa, I. D. (2015). PERSPECTIVES ON ELDER BIAS AND ABANDONMENT IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR GERONTOLOGICAL COUNSELLING Dimkpa, Daisy I. (PhD). International Journal of Education and Research, 3(4), 221–232.

Dong, X., Beck, T., & Simon, M. (2010). The associations of gender, depression and elder mistreatment in a community-dwelling Chinese population: the modifying effect of social support. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016749430900082X

Gray, B., & Keith, V. (2003). 13 THE BENEFITS AND COSTS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN. In and out of Our Right Minds: The Mental. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=llLsgLu2v4oC&oi=fnd&pg=PA242&dq=okun+%26+keith+1988+social+support&ots=dWx9fYt3d8&sig=Ff_m4JUGMAPW9rauc59hh48CJzU

Hassan, R., I ’ffah Binti, N., & Nasir, M. (2016). Prioritization of Zakat Distribution in Selangor and the Federal Territory of Malaysia: Are They Following the Right Distribution Principles According to Shariah? Intellectual DIscourse, Special Issue, 24, 435–457. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/2213f14642248e2b28aaa0adff0c6f11/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=826340

House, J. (1981). Work stress and social support. Retrieved from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/99210

Htay, S., Salman, S., Myint, S., & Ilyas, H. (2014). Integrating Zakat, Waqf and Sadaqah: Myint Myat Phu Zin Clinic Model in Myanmar. Tazkia Islamic Finance and. Retrieved from http://tifbr-tazkia.org/index.php/TIFBR/article/view/68

Hussain Basri, E., & Khali, J. (2014). Payment of Zakat to non-Muslims in the light of Islamic Shariah. Al-Idah, 29. Retrieved from http://www.szic.pk/journal/dec2014/7.pdf

Janevic, M., Janz, N., & Dodge, J. (2004). Longitudinal effects of social support on the health and functioning of older women with heart disease. Journal of Aging …. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/BY6D-LMK8-P8HT-DMP9

Jr, M. B., & Prelow, H. (2000). Interventions to promote social support in children and adolescents. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2001-00169-010

Kahf, M. (2003). The role of waqf in improving the ummah welfare. International Seminar on Waqf as a Private Legal Body,. Retrieved from http://ierc.sbu.ac.ir/File/Article/the role of waqf in improving the ummah welfar_94755.pdf

Kawachi, I., & Berkman, L. (2001). Social ties and mental health. Journal of Urban Health. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/j344hh0vu0333337.pdf

Keeley, B., & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2007). Human capital : how what you know shapes your life. OECD.

Khan, D. (2013). Contribution of Islamic Waqf in Poverty Reduction. Retrieved from http://www.pide.org.pk/psde/pdf/AGM30/papers/Contribution of Islamic Waqf in Poverty Reduction.pdf

Khan, F. (2001). Waqf: an Islamic instrument of poverty alleviation-Bangladesh perspective. -The Tawhidi Espitomology: Zakat and Waqf Economy. …. Retrieved from http://www.ukm.my/hadhari/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/proceedings-seminar-waqf-tawhidi.pdf#page=74

Khan, M. (2007). Integrating Faith-based Institutions (Zakah and Awqaf) in Poverty Reductions Strategies (PRS). Chief in IRTI, IDB, Jeddah 21413, Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/35015486/Integrating-Faith-based-Institutions-in-Poverty-Reductions-Strategies.-Jeddah-Saudi-Arabia.-Fahim-Khan.pdf

Kowal, P., Chatterji, S., Naidoo, N., Biritwum, R., & Fan, W. (2012). Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). International Journal of. Retrieved from http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/41/6/1639.short

Krause, N. (1987a). Life stress, social support, and self-esteem in an elderly population. Psychology and Aging. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pag/2/4/349/

Krause, N. (1987b). Satisfaction with social support and self-rated health in older adults. The Gerontologist. Retrieved from http://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/3/301.short

Krause, N., Ellison, C., & Shaw, B. (2001). Church‐based social support and religious coping. Journal for the. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0021-8294.00082/abstract

Litwin, H., & Landau, R. (2000). Social network type and social support among the old-old. Journal of Aging Studies. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890406500800122

Man, M. bin, of, A. S.-K. C. of A. J., & 2011, undefined. (n.d.). New Dimension in the Mobilization of Waqf Funds for Educational Development. Arabianjbmr.com. Retrieved from https://www.arabianjbmr.com/pdfs/KD_VOL_1_(1)/10 VOL 1(1).pdf

Mcgarry, K. (n.d.). The Social Safety Net for the Elderly Preliminary Outline Prepared for the pre‐conference for “ The Legacy of the War on Poverty: A 50‐Year Retrospective .”

Melchiorre, M., Chiatti, C., & Lamura, G. (2013). Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries. PloS One. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0054856

Melchiorre, M. G., Chiatti, C., Lamura, G., Torres-Gonzales, F., Stankunas, M., Lindert, J., … Soares, J. F. J. (2013). Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries. PLoS ONE, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054856

Meriam Syed Akil, S., & Abdullah, S. (2014). Challenges in Managing Elderly Care Centres in Malaysia. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 7(3), 1944–6934.

Morduch, J. (1999). Between the State and the Market: Can Informal Insurance Patch the Safety Net? The World Bank Research Observer, 14(2), 187–207. Retrieved from https://watermark.silverchair.com/14-2-187.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAcEwggG9BgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggGuMIIBqgIBADCCAaMGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMRFKZpZi6tCuG6aHKAgEQgIIBdA0it3JOF8bndjlKb0KFdYiNtSVB4Mm_504O9bp3NSsahyQ6XV26LXFy_s52taFz97J0JHOe9UHm_ewI2HA1rI1ggwyEuz1mbdKX8hs6PJYeNLzDzHGPt-mzei-qpUzH_QKKXx8KbOJjEaoKJcl1SBzqOxLB-X0PuclKf1J09K7qAhh9CxzIVcX3GhosudLWS4CxGCSrFwrIzvSHCjqHHoJczldfOO8rB-XNPGO2n1YtPQ0UyXV29EuQ_LnxzK-8NJRnD1kHUD7XoaOnVnGMXc3Xo55tWs4QvGuaQL5SJb2MarX9CCfmQYan3OPRquMp15PEh2XUCPmnpz7aL0wbaeFF0FdVuCuXI3DX_wqVJ6d7WHTZARtjCnkH7ktPjr3yrlVCv6Rpeho_Pd5YgNKOSq3vVFRUTRrVQaCNyRP4iFg3cSUzGqsU917RxukjQLJqCd1zW2Q8ZydMaS3-gwzMWUb-8dyDpUfGbNFPcQ9O8xXN5WfvMg

Mumtaz, Z., & Whiteford, P. (2017). Social safety nets in the development of a welfare system in Pakistan: an analysis of the Benazir Income Support Programme. Asia Pacific Journal of Public. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23276665.2017.1290902

Norton, A., Conway, T., & Foster, M. (2002). Social protection: defining the field of action and policy. Development Policy Review. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-7679.00189/full

Okun, M., & Keith, V. (1998). Effects of positive and negative social exchanges with various sources on depressive symptoms in younger and older adults. And Social …. Retrieved from http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/53B/1/P4.short

Organization, W. H. (2014). World health Statistics 2014, 2015. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HbQXDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR2&dq=world+health+statistics+(2014)&ots=PavEDeR0BJ&sig=t8DLWpCCOublSqi4SJYLVOHhaI4

Paitoonpong, S., Abe, S., & Puopongsakorn, N. (2008). Author’s personal copy The meaning of social safety nets’’. Journal of Asian Economics, 19, 467–473. Retrieved from http://www.elsevier.com/copyright

Palacios, R. J., & Rajan, S. I. (2004). Safety nets for the elderly in poor countries: the case of Nepal.

Putnam, R. (2001). Social capital: Measurement and consequences. Canadian Journal of Policy Research. Retrieved from https://search.oecd.org/edu/innovation-education/1825848.pdf

Ratuva, S. (2006). Traditional social protection systems in the Pacific-culture, customs and safety nets. Social Protection of All Men and Women: A. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=ratuva+2006+social+protection&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5

S. a., A., O., A., & O., A. (2012). Elderly Well-being in a Rural Community in North Central Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa. Public Health Research, 2(4), 92–101. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.phr.20120204.05

Saad, N., & Abdullah, N. (2014). Is Zakat Capable of Alleviating Poverty? An Analysis on the Distribution of Zakat Fund in Malaysia. Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking , 10(1), 69–95. Retrieved from http://ibtra.com/pdf/journal/v10_n1_article4.pdf

Schwarzer, R., & Gutiérrez-Doña, B. (2005). More spousal support for men than for women: A comparison of sources and types of support. Sex Roles, 52(7–8), 523–532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-3718-6

Shaw, B., & Janevic, M. (2004). Associations between anticipated support, physical functioning, and education level among a nationally representative sample of older adults. Journal of Aging and Health. Retrieved from http://jah.sagepub.com/content/16/4/539.abstract

Shofoyeke, A., & Amosun, P. (2014). A Survey of Care And Support for the Elderly People in Nigria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/4820

Stanton-Salazar, R. (2016). Contributions of social capital theory and social network models in advancing the connection between students’ school-based learning and community-based. Retrieved from http://dml2016.dmlhub.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/5_Stanton-Salazar_NYCHivesPaperpdf.pdf

Subbarao, K. (n.d.). Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network The World Bank NAMIBIA’S SOCIAL SAFETY NET: ISSUES AND OPTIONS FOR REFORM.

Taylor, S. E., Pham, L. B., Rivkin, I. D., & Armor, D. A. (1998). Harnessing the imagination. Mental simulation, self-regulation, and coping. The American Psychologist, 53(4), 429–439. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.4.429

The State of Social Safety Nets 2014. (n.d.).

Thoits, P. (1986). Social support as coping assistance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/ccp/54/4/416/

Thoits, P. (1991). On merging identity theory and stress research. Social Psychology Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2786929

Thoits, P. (1995). Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? What next? Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2626957

Togonu-Bickersteth, F., & Akinyemi, A. I. (2013). Ageing and national development in Nigeria: Costly assumptions and challenges for the future. Etude de La Population Africaine, 27(2 SUPPL.), 361–371. https://doi.org/10.11564/27-2-481

Trakic, A. (2009). The legal and administrative analysis of Waqf in Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Conference on Waqf Laws and. Retrieved from http://waqfacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Adnan-Trakic-AT.-Date.-Legal-and-Administrative-Analysis-of-Waqf-in-Bosnia-Herzegovina.-Malaysi.pdf

Troisi, J. (2001). Training to provide for healthy rural aging. J Rural Health, 17(4), 336–340.

Uchino B. (2004). uchino Social support and physical health: Understanding the health consequences of relationships. (University Press, Ed.). Yale. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=uchino+2004+social+support&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5

Uehara, E. (1990). Dual exchange theory, social networks, and informal social support. American Journal of Sociology. Retrieved from http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/229571

Wahab, E. O., & Adedokun, A. (2012). Changing Family Structure and Care of the Older Persons in Nigeria. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 25.

Walen, H., & Lachman, M. (2000). Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: Costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. Of Social and Personal Relationships. Retrieved from http://spr.sagepub.com/content/17/1/5.short

Walker, A. J., Pratt, C. C., Eddy, L., Walker, A., Pratt, C. C., & Eddy, L. (1995). Informal Caregiving to Aging Family Members : A Critical Review Published by : National Council on Family Relations Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/584996 Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : All use subject to http://about. Family Relations, 44(4), 402–411.

Wills, T., & Shinar, O. (2000). Measuring perceived and received social support. Social Support Measurement and. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=I_0HZQXQk2gC&oi=fnd&pg=PA86&dq=Wills+%26+Shinar,+2000+social+support&ots=URJFARWw7N&sig=8W9w-vCQcXpPqALJN3Is1NL1SWY

Woolcock, M. (1998). Social Capital and Economic Development: Towards a Theoretical Synthesis and Policy. Theory and Society, 2(27), 151–208. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=Woolcock%2C+M.+%281998%29.+Social+Capital+and+Economic+Development%3A+Towards+a+Theoretical+%09%09Synthesis+and+Policy+Fr+Coleman%2C+J.S.+%281988%29.+Social+capital+in+the+creation+of+human+%09%09capital.+America

World Bank. (1994). Averting the Old Age Crisis. World Bank, 402. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02681086

Yip, W. W. (2011). Reconstructing John Hick’s theory of religious pluralism: a Chinese folk religion’s perspective, 1–426.

Zakaria, A., Samad, R., Business, Z. S.-I. J. of, & 2012, undefined. (n.d.). Venture Philanthropy-Waqf Practices And Its Implementation: Scenario In Malaysia. Ijbel.com. Retrieved from http://ijbel.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Venture-Philanthropy-–-Waqf-Practices-And-Its-Implementation-Scenario-In-Malaysia-Azliza-Azrah-Mohd-Zakaria-Rose-Ruziana-Abd.-Samad-Assoc.Prof_.-Dr.-Zurina-Shafii.pdf


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.