A Critical Review of Goal Orientation as Three Factor Construct

Muhammad Azeem Ahmad, Noor Azmi bin Hashim, Ali Yusob bin Md Zain


The study aimed to provide a clear picture of goal orientation construct and summarize the debate regarding its construct. To refer and explore the past empirical and theoretical literature, data was gathered from multiple databases like JSTOR, Wiley online, Tailor & Francis, SAGE, Springer, Science Direct and emerald. The extensive review of literature pointed out that three factor construct of goal orientation is more valid and aligned with theory as compared to one factor or two factor construct. Further to clarify the attributes of each dimension, all three dimensions of goal orientation (Learning Goal Orientation, Performance Prove Goal Orientation and Performance Avoid Goal Orientation) are explained in detail. At the end, conclusion with certain limitations are given to get the attention of future research in this area.


Goal Orientation, Learning Goal Orientation, Performance Prove Goal Orientation, Performance Avoid Goal Orientation.

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