A Critical Review of Goal Orientation as Three Factor Construct
The study aimed to provide a clear picture of goal orientation construct and summarize the debate regarding its construct. To refer and explore the past empirical and theoretical literature, data was gathered from multiple databases like JSTOR, Wiley online, Tailor & Francis, SAGE, Springer, Science Direct and emerald. The extensive review of literature pointed out that three factor construct of goal orientation is more valid and aligned with theory as compared to one factor or two factor construct. Further to clarify the attributes of each dimension, all three dimensions of goal orientation (Learning Goal Orientation, Performance Prove Goal Orientation and Performance Avoid Goal Orientation) are explained in detail. At the end, conclusion with certain limitations are given to get the attention of future research in this area.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of educational psychology, 80(3), 260.
Atkinson, J. W. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Harvard Book List, 354.
Bartkus, K. R., & Howell, R. D. (1999). The relative influence of achievement motivation and irritability-impatience on the selling performance of travel agents: implications of the type A behavior pattern. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2), 163-167.
Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., & Larouche, C. (1995). The impact of goal orientation on self‐regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(3), 317-329.
Butler, R. (1993). Effects of task-and ego-achievement goals on information seeking during task engagement. Journal of personality and social psychology, 65(1), 18.
Button, S. B., Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1996). Goal orientation in organizational research: A conceptual and empirical foundation. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 67(1), 26-48.
Cellar, D. F., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Young, S. K., Fisher, D. M., Adair, C. K., Haynes, S., . . . Denning, B. L. (2011). Trait goal orientation, self-regulation, and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(4), 467-483.
Chen, A., Peng, N., & Hung, K.-p. (2015). Strategic management of salespeople when promoting new products: Moderating effects of sales-related organizational psychological climate. European Journal of Marketing, 49(9/10), 1616-1644.
Chen, G., Gully, S. M., Whiteman, J.-A., & Kilcullen, R. N. (2000). Examination of relationships among trait-like individual differences, state-like individual differences, and learning performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 835.
DeShon, R. P., & Gillespie, J. Z. (2005). A motivated action theory account of goal orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1096.
Diener, C. I., & Dweck, C. S. (1980). An analysis of learned helplessness: II. The processing of success. Journal of personality and social psychology, 39(5), 940.
Dweck, C. S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of personality and social psychology, 31(4), 674.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040.
Dweck, C. S., & Bempechat, J. (1983). Children's theories of intelligence: Consequences for learning. Learning and motivation in the classroom, 239-256.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological review, 95(2), 256.
Dweck, C. S., & Reppucci, N. D. (1973). Learned helplessness and reinforcement responsibility in children. Journal of personality and social psychology, 25(1), 109.
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational psychologist, 34(3), 169-189.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 72(1), 218.
Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1994). Approach and avoidance achievement goals: An intrinsic motivation analysis. Unpublished. doctoral dissertation.
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2001). Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 139-156.
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2004). The intergenerational transmission of fear of failure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 957-971.
Elliott, A., & Harackiewicz, J. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 73, 171-185.
Elliott, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(1), 5.
Fisher, S. L., & Ford, J. K. (1998). Differential effects of learner effort and goal orientation on two learning outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 51(2), 397-420.
Fu, F. Q., Richards, K. A., & Jones, E. (2009). The motivation hub: Effects of goal setting and self-efficacy on effort and new product sales. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(3), 277-292.
Gong, Y., Huang, J.-C., & Farh, J.-L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of management journal, 52(4), 765-778.
Harris, E. G., Mowen, J. C., & Brown, T. J. (2005). Re-examining salesperson goal orientations: personality influencers, customer orientation, and work satisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 19-35.
Heyman, G. D., & Dweck, C. S. (1992). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: Their relation and their role in adaptive motivation. Motivation and emotion, 16(3), 231-247.
Hirst, G., Van Knippenberg, D., Chen, C.-h., & Sacramento, C. A. (2011). How does bureaucracy impact individual creativity? A cross-level investigation of team contextual influences on goal orientation–creativity relationships. Academy of management journal, 54(3), 624-641.
Jelinek, R., Ahearne, M., Mathieu, J., & Schillewaert, N. (2006). A longitudinal examination of individual, organizational, and contextual factors on sales technology adoption and job performance. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 14(1), 7-23.
Kohli, A. K., Shervani, T. A., & Challagalla, G. N. (1998). Learning and performance orientation of salespeople: The role of supervisors. Journal of marketing Research, 263-274.
MacGyvers, V. L. (1993). Implicit beliefs about the self and real world outcomes in children and adolescents.
McClelland, D. (1951). Culture and achievement motivation: A second look. Studies in cross-cultural psychology, 60-80.
McFarland, R. G., & Kidwell, B. (2006). An examination of instrumental and expressive traits on performance: The mediating role of learning, prove, and avoid goal orientations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(2), 143-159.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological review, 91(3), 328.
Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education: Harvard University Press.
Novell, C. A., Machleit, K. A., & Sojka, J. Z. (2016). Are good salespeople born or made? A new perspective on an age-old question: implicit theories of selling ability. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(4), 309-320.
Onatsu-Arvilommi, T., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2000). The role of task-avoidant and task-focused behaviors in the development of reading and mathematical skills during the first school year: A cross-lagged longitudinal study. Journal of educational psychology, 92(3), 478.
Park, J.-E., & Holloway, B. B. (2003). Adaptive selling behavior revisited: An empirical examination of learning orientation, sales performance, and job satisfaction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 23(3), 239-251.
Payne, S. C., Youngcourt, S. S., & Beaubien, J. M. (2007). A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 128.
Phillips, J. M., & Gully, S. M. (1997). Role of goal orientation, ability, need for achievement, and locus of control in the self-efficacy and goal-setting process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 792-802.
Porath, C. L., & Bateman, T. S. (2006). Self-regulation: from goal orientation to job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 185.
Potosky, D., & Ramakrishna, H. (2002). The moderating role of updating climate perceptions in the relationship between goal orientation, self-efficacy, and job performance. Human performance, 15(3), 275-297.
Rasool, H., Bashir, F., & Rauf-i-Azam, Z. M. N. (2015). The Other Side of Goal Orientation and Training Outcomes: Mediating Role of Training Motivation. Journal of Service Science and Management, 8(05), 726.
Silver, L. S., Dwyer, S., & Alford, B. (2006). Learning and performance goal orientation of salespeople revisited: The role of performance-approach and performance-avoidance orientations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(1), 27-38.
Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self-perceptions, and anxiety. Journal of educational psychology, 89(1), 71.
Steele-Johnson, D., Beauregard, R. S., Hoover, P. B., & Schmidt, A. M. (2000). Goal orientation and task demand effects on motivation, affect, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 724.
Sujan, H., Weitz, B. A., & Kumar, N. (1994). Learning orientation, working smart, and effective selling. The Journal of marketing, 39-52.
Terho, H., Kairisto-Mertanen, L., Bellenger, D., & Johnston, W. J. (2013). Salesperson goal orientations and the selling performance relationship: The critical role of mediation and moderation. Journal of Business Market Management, 6(2), 70-90.
VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orientation instrument. Educational and psychological measurement, 57(6), 995-1015.
VandeWalle, D., Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L., & Slocum Jr, J. W. (1999). The influence of goal orientation and self-regulation tactics on sales performance: A longitudinal field test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(2), 249.
VandeWalle, D., Cron, W. L., & Slocum Jr, J. W. (2001). The role of goal orientation following performance feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 629.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.