Carcinoma Breast, Causes and Risk Factors

Furqan Anwar, Waqar Younus, Muhammad Bilal


OBJECTIVE: This study was done to determine causes and risk factors of carcinoma breast and prevalence of carcinoma breast in different age groups of females.

STUDY DESIGN: It is a descriptive prospective type of study.

DURATION AND PLACE: This study was done on patients admitted in oncology ward of bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur from January 2017 to December 2017.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on total 66 patients admitted in oncology ward of the hospital. They were admitted via OPD bases. They were in different stages of disease for relevant treatment either neo adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery or palliative chemotherapy in advance stages of carcinoma in which distal metastasis has occurred in lungs or bones. These all patients were underwent necessary investigations including mammography, ultrasound breast, tumor markers, metastatic workup via CT abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen. Detailed history of these patients was taken for any family factors or history of carcinoma in relatives. Thorough examination of such patients done for any palpable lymph nodes, size and site of tumor, involvement of skin or underlying muscles, puckering of skin etc. A proforma was designed mentioning all necessary questions regarding age of patients, age at menarche or menopause, risk factors and family history etc. data of each patient was documented with her consent and privacy was assured. A proper consent was taken from medical superintendant of the hospital to carry out study.        

RESULTS: Total 66 patients were studied with carcinoma breast out of which 27(%) were above 50 years of age and 39 were below 50 years. There were 3() in 20-30 years age, 11(16.67%) in 31-40 years, 25 (37.87%) lying in age group of 41-50 years, 22(33.3%) in 51-60 years and 5() above 60 years of age. Out of 66 cases, 36(54.5%) had age of menopause between 40-45 years, 20(30.3%) in 46-50 years and 10(15.2%) had menopause in age more than 50 years. In most of these patients age of menarche was 13-15 years. There were 6(9%) nulliparous, 25(37.8%) had 1-2 children, 31(46.9%) had 3-4 children and 4(6%) had more than 4 children. It was seen that mostly patients were above 40 years of age with late menopause and early menarche. All data was composed on Microsoft office version 2007 and it was expressed via graphs, tables and charts.     

CONCLUSION:  From this study it was concluded that risk factors of carcinoma breast include positive family history of malignancy, old age of patient, early menarche, menopause in late age and nulliparous. In our society all these factors contribute to breast cancer.


Carcinoma breast, risk factors, etiology, prevalence

Full Text:



Lee FA, Anton CH, Feldsten PJ. Treatment diffe-rences and other prognostic factors related to Breast Cancer survival. JAMA 1994: 271: 1163-68.

Rana F, Younis J, Ali M. Breast Cancer epidemiolo-gy in Pakistani woman. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 1999; 8: 20-23.

Ahmed N. Breast carcinoma in Pakistani women, How it differs from the west. J Surg PIMS1991; 2: 56-58.

Wood WC. The future of breast surgery in the treat-ment of Breast Cancer. Breast 2003; 121: 72-4.

Eliston CW, Ellis LO. Pathalogical prognostic fac-tors in the Breast Cancer: The value of histological grade in breast cancer, experience from a large study with large term follow-up. Histopath 1991; 19: 403-10.

King SE, Schottenfeld D. The epidemic of Breast Cancer in the US determining the factors. Oncology 1996; 10: 453-72.

Cannon-Albright LA, Skolhick MH. The genetics of Familial Breast Cancer. Oncol 1996; 23: 1-5.

Jaffery NA. Frequency of Malignant tumors in seven centers of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 1997;

: 335-9.

Hitchcock A, Hent CM, Lockert D, et at. A one year audit of Fine needle aspiration cytology for the pre-operative diagnosis of Breast disease. Cytopathology 1991; 2: 167-176.

Hollingswath AB, Nall S, Dill D. The evaluation of Breast Cancer and risk assessment. J Okla State Med Assoc 2002; 95: 639-49.

Berg JW, HuHer RUP. Breast Cancer. Cancer 1995; 75 (Suppl): 257-269.

Peto J, Easton DF, Mathew FE, Ford D, Swerdlow AD. Cancer mortality in relatives of woman with Breast Cancer: The OPCS study. Int J Cancer 1996;

: 275-283.

Muti P. The role of endogenous hormone in the etiology and prevention of Breast Cancer: The Epi-demiological evidence. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004; 1028: 273-282.

Althius MD, Fregenbaum JH, Garcia-Closas M, Brinton Ca, Machgan MP, Sherman ME. Etiology of hormone receptor defined Breast Cancer: A sys-tematic review of the literature. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prrev 2004; 13(10): 1558-68.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.