Moderating Effects of Political Interest on the Relationship between Facebook Usage and Online Political Participation: Data Screening and Measurement Model

Bashir Hadi Ashara, Che Su Bt Mustaffa


The ultimate objective of this article is only to carry out an initial and preliminary examination on a study data collected for empirical research on the moderating effect of political interest on the usage of Facebook for online political participation for the purpose of structural equation modelling. 600 questionnaires were distributed to various respondent in Nigeria, and only 473 questionnaires representing 79% response rate were used for this analysis. Nonresponse bias test, the common method variance test, normality test and confirmatory factor analysis were all conducted to determine the fitness of the data for further multivariate analysis. Therefore, the findings revealed that the data is adequate and fit for conducting PLS structural equation modelling analysis. 


Usage, Online Political Participation, Political Interest.

Full Text:



Abdu, S. D. (2016). Relationship between Facebook usage and youth political participation in Nigeria. Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Abdulrauf, A. A., binti Abdul Hamid, N., & bin Ishak, M. S. (2017). Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge. SHS Web of Conferences.

Armstrong, S., & Overton, T. (1977). Armstrong, Estimating Nonrespone Bias in Mail Surveys , Journal of Marketing Research, 14:3 p.396. Journal of Marketing.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator – mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.

Baumgartner, J. C., & Morris, J. S. (2009). (2009). MyfaceTube politics: Social networking web sites and political engagement of young adults.. Social Science Computer Review.

Chan-Olmsted, S. M., Cho, M., & Lee, S. (2013). User Perceptions of Social Media: A Comparative Study of Perceived Characteristics and User Profiles by Social Media. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 3(4), 149–178.

Cohen, C. J., & Kahne, J. (2012). Paricipatory Politics: New Media and Youth Political Action.

Conroy, M., Feezell, J. T., & Guerrero, M. (2012). Facebook and political engagement: A study of online political group membership and offline political engagement. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1535–1546.

DeHart, J. L. (2016). (2016). Social Media Use and Online Political Participation Among College Students During the US Election 2012. Social Media+ Society, 2(1). 10.1177/2056305115623802

Del Vicario, M., Zollo, F., Caldarelli, G., Scala, A., & Quattrociocchi, W. (2017). Mapping social dynamics on Facebook: The Brexit debate. Social Networks.

EACEA. (2013). Youth in Action: Beneficiaries space 2013. Retrieved from

Eichhorn, B. R. (2014). Common Method Variance Techniques. Midwest SAS Users Group. Retrieved from

Ellison, N. B., Gray, R., Lampe, C., & Fiore, A. T. (2014). Social capital and resource requests on Facebook. New Media and Society.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications Inc. doi:10.1234/12345678

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research, 382-388.

Gerodimos, R., & Justinussen, J. (2015). Obama’s 2012 Facebook Campaign: Political Communication in the Age of the Like Button. Journal of Information Technology and Politics.

Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N., & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals’ social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 17.((3),), 319–336.

Greener, S. (2008). Business research methods. BookBoon

Haciyakupoglu, G., & Zhang, W. (2015). Social Media and Trust during the Gezi Protests in Turkey. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.

Hair, J. F. J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Long Range Planning (Vol. 46).

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. doi:10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414–433.

Hair Jr, J. F., Black, J. W., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, E. R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (Seventh Ed.). Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. New Challenges to International Marketing Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–31

Internet World Stats. (2015). World Internet Users Statistics Usage and World Population Stats. Retrieved from

InternetWorldStats. (2018). World Internet Users Statistics Usage and World Population Stats. Retrieved from

kaduna State University. (2015). Student Enrolment. Directorate of Academic Planning, KASU


Kim, Y., Hsu, S.-H., & de Zuniga, H. G. (2013). Influence of social media use on discussion network heterogeneity and civic engagement: The moderating role of personality traits. Journal of Communication. Retrieved from

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (3rd ed., Vol. 53). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Kushin, M. J., & Yamamoto, M. (2010). Did Social Media Really Matter? College Students’ Use of Online Media and Political Decision Making in the 2008 Election. Mass Communication and Society, 13(5), 608–630.

Kwan, G. C. E., & Skoric, M. M. (2013). Facebook bullying: An extension of battles in school. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 16–25.

Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.86.1.114

Milbrath, L. W. & Goel, M. L. . (1977). Political Participation How and Why People Get Involved in Politics. Chicago: Rand Mcnally.

Miller, L. E., & Smith, K. L. (1983). Handling nonresponse issues. Journal of Extension. Retrieved from

Miller, P. R., Bobkowski, P. S., Maliniak, D., & Rapoport, R. B. (2015). Talking Politics on Facebook: Network Centrality and Political Discussion Practices in Social Media. Political Research Quarterly, 68(2), 377–391.

Miller, P. R., Bobkowski, P. S., Maliniak, D., & Rapoport, R. B. (2015). Talking Politics on Facebook: Network Centrality and Political Discussion Practices in Social Media. Political Research Quarterly.

Muntean, A. (2015). The impact of social media use on political participation. Retrieved fro http://pure. au. dk/portal/files/90378581/The_Impact_of_Social_Media _on_Political_Participation. Pdf


Nwakanma, N. (2014). Social media and networks : what potential is there for policy engagement by citizens in West Africa ? The Internet : the revolution. Social Networks, 1–14

Odeyemi, T. I., & Mosunmola, O. O. (2015). Stakeholders, ICTs Platforms and the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria. Inec.

Ogundimo, N. K. (2013). Facebook and digital activism: Conversations about peace building in Nigeria between a president and his “friends” on Facebook. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews, .4 No.1, M(1), 218 – 226.

Okafor, F. C. (2012). Addressing the problem of non-response and response Bias. Journal of Applied Statistics, 1(1), 91–97.

Okoro, N., & Nwafor, K. (2013). Social media and political participation in Nigeria during the 2011 general elections: the lapses and the lessons. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciencies, 1(3), 29–45. Retrieved from

Oldmeadow, J. A., Quinn, S., & Kowert, R. (2013). Attachment style, social skills, and Facebook use amongst adults. Computers in Human Behavior.

Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (4th ed.).Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Podsakoff, P., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544. doi:10.1177/014920638601200408

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Rainie, L., Smith, A., Schlozman, K. L., Brady, H., & Verba, S. (2012). Social media and political engagement. Pew Internet & American Life Project, 19, 2-13


Richardson, H. A., Simmering, M. J., & Sturman, M. C. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: Examining post hoc statistical techniques for detection and corrections of common method variance. Organizational Methods, 12(4), 762–200. doi:10.1177/1094428109332834.

Salkind, N. J. (1997). Exploring research ((3rd ed.).). Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall.

Skoric, M. M., & Poor, N. (2013). Youth Engagement in Singapore: The Interplay of Social and Traditional Media. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media.

Smith, A. (2013). Civic engagement in the digital age. Pew Internet & American Life Project.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.

Tang, G., & Lee, F. L. (2013). Facebook use and political participation: The impact of exposure to shared political information, connections with public political actors, and network structural heterogeneity. Social Science Computer Review,.

Ternes, A., Mittelstadt, A., & Towers, I. (2015). Using Facebook for political action? Social networking sites and political participation of young adults. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review .

Theocharis, Y., & Quintelier, E. (2014). Stimulating citizenship or expanding entertainment? The effect of Facebook on adolescent participation. New Media and Society.

Towner, T. L. (2013). All Political Participation Is Socially Networked?: New Media and the 2012 Election. Social Science Computer Review, 31(5), 527–541.

Traud, A. L., Mucha, P. J., & Porter, M. A. (2012). Social structure of Facebook networks. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications.

Uzochukwu, C. E., & Ekwugha, U. P. (2014). New Media and Youth’s Online Civic Engagement in Nigerian Politics: Potentials and Challenges. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 10(19

Valenzuela, S. Arriagada, A. Scherman, A. (2012). The Social Media Basis of Youth Protest Behavior: The Case of Chile Sebastián. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 299–314,. 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01635.

Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. F. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site? Facebook use and college student’s life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 875–901.

Verba, S., Nie, N. H., & Kim, J.-O. . (1978). Participation and political equality: A seven-nation comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Verba, S., Schlozman, K., & Brady, H. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge, MA: .: Harvard University Press.

Vitak, J., Zube, P., Smock, A., Carr, C. T., Ellison, N., & Lampe, C. (2011a). It’s complicated: Facebook users’ political participation in the 2008 election. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(3), 107–114.

Waller, L. G. (2013). Enhancing Political Participation in Jamaica: The Use of Facebook to “Cure” the Problem of Political Talk Among the Jamaican Youth. SAGE Open, 3(2).

Weiqin, E. L., Campbell, M., Kimpton, M., Wozencroft, K., & Orel, A. (2016). Social Capital on Facebook. Journal of Educational Computing Research.

Whiteley, P. (2005). Citizenship education longitudinal study: Second literature review. Citizenship Education: The Political Science Perspective.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.