Mismanagement of the available irrigation potentials of rice farming in Kano State, Nigeria

Yusuf Tanko, Cheah Yong Kang

Abstract


The objective of this paper is to examine the available irrigation facility in Kano state, its potential expectation, and utilization. Data available shows that, the state has 17 rice producing-centres and 17 dams that can irrigate 1,438,000 hectares of farm-land. Unfortunately, only 15.65% of the irrigated farm-land were utilized, living 84.35% of the irrigable farm-land un-utilized, which contribute to low rice productivity in the state. Some of the reasons for the under-utilization of the irrigated farm-land is the absence of drainages that link the dams with the farm-land. Also, the current practiced of continues flooding system which easily exhausts the available water for irrigation contributed in making a vast area of farm-land ideal. Rice production can be increased in Kano by constructing more drainages to link more unconnected farm-land with the source of water to enable supply of irrigation water to the farms. Rice production can also be increased by adopting some of the water-saving management such as the alternate wetting and drying, the alternate moderate wetting and drying, and the delaying flooding to reduce irrigation water input. The choice of water saving system will depend on each rice producing centre in the state.


Keywords


Irrigation facility; Water Saving Management; Utilization; Productivity; Rice

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References


Ahmed, A., Xu, S., Yu, W., & Wang, Y. (2017). Comparative Study on Factors Influencing Rice Yield in Niger State of Nigeria and Hainan of China. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research [IJAFR], 6(1), 15–25.

Ajakaiye, A. (2017, January 19). Kano increases rice production to 1.6 metric tons-Ganduje. Businee Day Online News Paper. Nigeria. Retrieved from www.busineedayonline.com/kano-increase-rice-production-1.6m-tonnes-ganduje/

Alam, M. J., Humphreys, E., Sarkar, M. A. R., & Yadav, S. (2017). Intensification and diversification increase land and water productivity and profitability of rice-based cropping systems on the High Ganges River Floodplain of Bangladesh. Field Crops Research, 209(April), 10–26. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.04.008

Ashouri, M. (2014). Water use efficiency, irrigation management and nitrogen utilization in rice production in the North of Iran. APCBEE Procedia, 8(Caas 2013), 70–74. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.03.003

Assefa, Y., Roozeboom, K., Thompson, C., Schlegel, A., Stone, L., & Lingenfelser, J. E. (2014). Rotation Effects of Corn and Sorghum in Cropping Systems. In Corn and Grain Sorghum Comparison (pp. 87–101). http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800112-7.00007-8

Ayinde, O. E., Bessler, D. A., & Oni, F. E. (2014). Analysis of supply response and price risk on rice production in Nigeria. In The agricultural and applied economics association Mnneapolis MN, July 27-29, 2014 (pp. 1–20). Texas: The Agricultural & Applied Economics Association”s 2014 AAEA Annual meeting, Minneapolis MN, July 27- 29, 2014. Copyright.

Basha, S. J., & Sarma, R. S. (2017). Yield and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) relative to scheduling of irrigations. Annals of Plant Sciences, 1559–1565. http://doi.org/10.21746/aps.2017.02.005

Belder, P., Bouman, B. A. M., & Spiertz, J. H. J. (2007). Exploring options for water savings in lowland rice using a modelling approach. Agricultural Systems, 92(1–3), 91–114. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2006.03.001

Bell, A. R., Bryan, E., Ringler, C., & Ahmed, A. (2015). Rice productivity in Bangladesh: What are the benefits of irrigation? Land Use Policy, 48, 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.05.019

Ben-Chendo, G. N., & Joseph, V. N. (2014). Comparative analysis of rice productivity of farmers on different land tenure systems in Imo State. International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 2(3), 24–32.

Binswanger, H. P., Khandker, R. S., & Rosenzweig, R. M. (1993). How infrastructure and financial institutions affect agricultural output and investment in India. Journal of Development Economics, 41, 337–366.

Bouman, B. A. M. (2007). A conceptual framework for the improvement of crop water productivity at different spatial scales. Agricultural Systems, 93(1–3), 43–60. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2006.04.004

Carrijo, D. R., Lundy, M. E., & Linquist, B. A. (2017). Rice yields and water use under alternate wetting and drying irrigation: A meta-analysis. Field Crops Research, 203, 173–180. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.12.002

Cesari de Maria, S., Bischetti, B. G., Chiaradia, A. E., Facchi, A., Miniotti, F. E., Rienzner, M., … Gandolfi, C. (2017). The role of water management and environmental factors on field irrigation requirements and water productivity of rice. Journal Irrigation Science, 35(1), 11–26. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-016-0519-3

Chu, Y., Shen, Y., & Yuan, Z. (2017). Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21(6), 3061–3069. http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-3061-2017

Chun, J. A., Li, S., Wang, Q., Lee, W. S., Lee, E. J., Horstmann, N., … Vang, S. (2016). Assessing rice productivity and adaptation strategies for Southeast Asia under climate change through multi-scale crop modeling. Agricultural Systems, 143, 14–21. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2015.12.001

Jana, K., Karmakar, R., Banerjee, S., Sana, M., Goswami, S., & Am, P. (2018). Aerobic rice cultivation system: Eco-friendly and water saving technology under changed climate. Agricultural Research and Technology, 13(2), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.19080/ARTOAJ.2018.13.555878

Kim, I., Elisha, I., Lawrence, E., & Moses, M. (2017). Farmers adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on rice production: A case study in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Environmental and Ecology Research, 5(4), 289–301. http://doi.org/10.13189/eer.2017.050406

KNARDA. (2017). National Estimated Outputs, Area Cultivated, Yield, Output, and Specific Outputs from the FGD for 2016 Season. Kano State, Nigeria: Kano Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Hadejia Road, Kawo adjacent to Yankaba Motor Park, Nigeria.

Kukal, S. S., Hira, G. S., & Sidhu, A. S. (2005). Soil matric potential-based irrigation scheduling to rice (Oryza sativa). Irrigation Science, 23(4), 153–159. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-005-0103-8

LaHue, G. T., Chaney, R. L., Adviento-Borbe, M. A., & Linquist, B. A. (2016). Alternate wetting and drying in high yielding direct-seeded rice systems accomplishes multiple environmental and agronomic objectives. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 229, 30–39. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.05.020

Macauley, H. (2015). Cereal crops: Rice, Maize, Millet, Sorghum, Wheat. Feeding Africa: An action plan for African Agricultural transformation.

Maji, A. T., Bashir, M., Oduba, A., Gbanguba, A. U., & Audu, S. D. (2015). Genotype X environment interaction and stability estimate forgGrain yield of upland rice genotypes in Nigeria. Journal of Rice Research, 03(02), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.4172/2375-4338.1000136

National Bureau of Statistics [NBS]. (2016). The population of Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bereau of Statistics Abuja, Nigeria. Retrieved from www.nigeriastat.gov.ng

Nin-pratt, A., & Yu, B. (2009). An updated look at the recovery of agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contributed Paper Prepared for Presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, August 16-22, 2009, (202).

Onu, D. O., Obike, K. C., Ebe, F. E., & Okpara, B. O. (2015). Empirical assessment of the trend in rice production and imports in Nigeria ( 1980 – 2013 ). International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Sciences, 5(6), 150–158.

Pan, J., Liu, Y., Zhong, X., Lampayan, R. M., Singleton, G. R., Huang, N., … Tian, K. (2017). Grain yield, water productivity and nitrogen use efficiency of rice under different water management and fertilizer-N inputs in South China. Agricultural Water Management, 184, 191–200. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.01.013

Ragasa, C., & Chapoto, A. (2017). Limits to green revolution in rice in Africa: The case of Ghana. Land Use Policy, 66(April), 304–321. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.04.052

Sanchez-Llerena, J., Lopez-Pineiro, A., Albarran, A., Pena, D., Becerra, D., & Rato-Nunes, J. M. (2016). Short and long-term effects of different irrigation and tillage systems on soil properties and rice productivity under Mediterranean conditions. European Journal of Agronomy, 77, 101–110. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2016.04.005

Sandhu, N., Subedi, S. R., Yadaw, R. B., Chaudhary, B., Prasai, H., Iftekharuddaula, K., … Kumar, A. (2017). Root traits enhancing rice grain yield under alternate wetting and drying condition. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8(October), 1–13. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01879

Sarkar, N., Ghosh, U., & Biswas, K. R. (2018). Effect of drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of summer rice cultivation in pots. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(1), 37–40.

Sharma, S. K., Rana, S. S., Sharma, K. S., Bhargava, M., Sharma, J. J., & Sharma, H. L. (2007). Production potential and economic feasibility of irrigated rice based cropping sequences on cultivators’ fields under sub-montane low hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(1), 110–112.

Sharma, S. K., Rana, S. S., Subehia, S. K., & Negi, S. C. (2015). Production potential of rice-based cropping sequences on farmers’ fields in low hills of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 41(1), 20–24.

Sibayan, E. B., Samoy-Pascual, K., Grospe, F. S., Casil, M. E. D., Tokida, T., Padre, A. T., & Minamikawa, K. (2018). Effects of alternate wetting and drying technique on greenhouse gas emissions from irrigated rice paddy in Central Luzon, Philippines. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 64(1), 39–46. http://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2017.1401906

Soman, P., Singh, S., Bhardwaj, A. K., Pandiaraj, T., & Bhardwaj, R. K. (2018). On-farm drip irrigation in rice for higher productivity and profitability in Haryana, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(02), 506–512.

Suleiman, I. (2016). Nigeria produces 3.5m tonnes of rice and needs 7m tonnes. Vangurad Online News. Nigeria. Retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/nigeria-produces-3.5m-tonnes-rice-needs-7m-tonnes-ogbe

Tanaka, A., Johnson, J. M., Senthilkumar, K., Akakpo, C., Segda, Z., Yameogo, L. P., … Saito, K. (2017). On-farm rice yield and its association with biophysical factors in sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Agronomy, 85, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2016.12.010

Tuong, P., Bouman, B. A. M., & Mortimer, M. (2005). More rice, less Water-integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice-based systems in Asia. Plant Production Science, 8(3), 231–241. http://doi.org/10.1626/pps.8.231

Uduma, B. U., Samson, O. A., & Mure, U. A. (2016). Irrigation potentials and rice self-sufficiency in Nigeria: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(5), 298–309. http://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2015.10284

Xue, W., Lindner, S., Dubbert, M., Otieno, D., Ko, J., Muraoka, H., … Tenhunen, J. (2017). Supplement understanding of the relative importance of biophysical factors in determination of photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic productivity in rice ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 232, 550–565. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.10.009

Yang, J., Zhou, Q., & Zhang, J. (2017). Moderate wetting and drying increases rice yield and reduces water use, grain arsenic level, and methane emission. The Crop Journal, 5(2), 151–158. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2016.06.002

Zhang, H., Li, H., Yuan, L., Wang, Z., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2012). Post-anthesis alternate wetting and moderate soil drying enhances activities of key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion in inferior spikelets of rice. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(1), 215–227. http://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err263

Zhang, H., Xue, Y., Wang, Z., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2009). An alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime improves root and shoot growth in rice. Crop Science, 49(6), 2246–2260. http://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0099

Zhang, H., Yu, C., Kong, X., Hou, D., Gu, J., Liu, L., … Yang, J. (2018). Progressive integrative crop managements increase grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and irrigation water productivity in rice. Field Crops Research, 215, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.09.034

Zhang, L., Wang, G., Zheng, Q., Liu, Y., Yu, D., Shi, X., … Fan, X. (2017). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural management and climate change on soil organic carbon changes in the uplands of eastern China. Soil and Tillage Research, 174(January), 81–91. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2017.06.005

Zhang, W., Zheng, C., & Song, Z. (2015). Farming systems in China: Innovations. Crop Physiology (Second Edi). Elsevier Inc. http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417104-6/00003-0

Zhang, Y., Liu, M., Dannenmann, M., Tao, Y., Yao, Z., Jing, R., … Lin, S. (2017). Benefit of using biodegradable film on rice grain yield and N use efficiency in ground cover rice production system. Field Crops Research, 201, 52–59. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.10.022

Zhang, Z. C., Xue, Y. G., Wang, Z. Q., Yang, J. C., & Zhang, J. H. (2009). The relationship of grain filling with abscisic acid and ethylene under non-flooded mulching cultivation. Journal of Agricultural Science, 147(4), 423–436. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859609008557

Ahmed, A., Xu, S., Yu, W., & Wang, Y. (2017). Comparative Study on Factors Influencing Rice Yield in Niger State of Nigeria and Hainan of China. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research [IJAFR], 6(1), 15–25.

Ajakaiye, A. (2017, January 19). Kano increases rice production to 1.6 metric tons-Ganduje. Businee Day Online News Paper. Nigeria. Retrieved from www.busineedayonline.com/kano-increase-rice-production-1.6m-tonnes-ganduje/

Alam, M. J., Humphreys, E., Sarkar, M. A. R., & Yadav, S. (2017). Intensification and diversification increase land and water productivity and profitability of rice-based cropping systems on the High Ganges River Floodplain of Bangladesh. Field Crops Research, 209(April), 10–26. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.04.008

Ashouri, M. (2014). Water use efficiency, irrigation management and nitrogen utilization in rice production in the North of Iran. APCBEE Procedia, 8(Caas 2013), 70–74. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.03.003

Assefa, Y., Roozeboom, K., Thompson, C., Schlegel, A., Stone, L., & Lingenfelser, J. E. (2014). Rotation Effects of Corn and Sorghum in Cropping Systems. In Corn and Grain Sorghum Comparison (pp. 87–101). http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800112-7.00007-8

Ayinde, O. E., Bessler, D. A., & Oni, F. E. (2014). Analysis of supply response and price risk on rice production in Nigeria. In The agricultural and applied economics association Mnneapolis MN, July 27-29, 2014 (pp. 1–20). Texas: The Agricultural & Applied Economics Association”s 2014 AAEA Annual meeting, Minneapolis MN, July 27- 29, 2014. Copyright.

Basha, S. J., & Sarma, R. S. (2017). Yield and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) relative to scheduling of irrigations. Annals of Plant Sciences, 1559–1565. http://doi.org/10.21746/aps.2017.02.005

Belder, P., Bouman, B. A. M., & Spiertz, J. H. J. (2007). Exploring options for water savings in lowland rice using a modelling approach. Agricultural Systems, 92(1–3), 91–114. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2006.03.001

Bell, A. R., Bryan, E., Ringler, C., & Ahmed, A. (2015). Rice productivity in Bangladesh: What are the benefits of irrigation? Land Use Policy, 48, 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.05.019

Ben-Chendo, G. N., & Joseph, V. N. (2014). Comparative analysis of rice productivity of farmers on different land tenure systems in Imo State. International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 2(3), 24–32.

Binswanger, H. P., Khandker, R. S., & Rosenzweig, R. M. (1993). How infrastructure and financial institutions affect agricultural output and investment in India. Journal of Development Economics, 41, 337–366.

Bouman, B. A. M. (2007). A conceptual framework for the improvement of crop water productivity at different spatial scales. Agricultural Systems, 93(1–3), 43–60. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2006.04.004

Carrijo, D. R., Lundy, M. E., & Linquist, B. A. (2017). Rice yields and water use under alternate wetting and drying irrigation: A meta-analysis. Field Crops Research, 203, 173–180. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.12.002

Cesari de Maria, S., Bischetti, B. G., Chiaradia, A. E., Facchi, A., Miniotti, F. E., Rienzner, M., … Gandolfi, C. (2017). The role of water management and environmental factors on field irrigation requirements and water productivity of rice. Journal Irrigation Science, 35(1), 11–26. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-016-0519-3

Chu, Y., Shen, Y., & Yuan, Z. (2017). Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21(6), 3061–3069. http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-3061-2017

Chun, J. A., Li, S., Wang, Q., Lee, W. S., Lee, E. J., Horstmann, N., … Vang, S. (2016). Assessing rice productivity and adaptation strategies for Southeast Asia under climate change through multi-scale crop modeling. Agricultural Systems, 143, 14–21. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2015.12.001

Jana, K., Karmakar, R., Banerjee, S., Sana, M., Goswami, S., & Am, P. (2018). Aerobic rice cultivation system: Eco-friendly and water saving technology under changed climate. Agricultural Research and Technology, 13(2), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.19080/ARTOAJ.2018.13.555878

Kim, I., Elisha, I., Lawrence, E., & Moses, M. (2017). Farmers adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on rice production: A case study in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Environmental and Ecology Research, 5(4), 289–301. http://doi.org/10.13189/eer.2017.050406

KNARDA. (2017). National Estimated Outputs, Area Cultivated, Yield, Output, and Specific Outputs from the FGD for 2016 Season. Kano State, Nigeria: Kano Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Hadejia Road, Kawo adjacent to Yankaba Motor Park, Nigeria.

Kukal, S. S., Hira, G. S., & Sidhu, A. S. (2005). Soil matric potential-based irrigation scheduling to rice (Oryza sativa). Irrigation Science, 23(4), 153–159. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-005-0103-8

LaHue, G. T., Chaney, R. L., Adviento-Borbe, M. A., & Linquist, B. A. (2016). Alternate wetting and drying in high yielding direct-seeded rice systems accomplishes multiple environmental and agronomic objectives. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 229, 30–39. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.05.020

Macauley, H. (2015). Cereal crops: Rice, Maize, Millet, Sorghum, Wheat. Feeding Africa: An action plan for African Agricultural transformation.

Maji, A. T., Bashir, M., Oduba, A., Gbanguba, A. U., & Audu, S. D. (2015). Genotype X environment interaction and stability estimate forgGrain yield of upland rice genotypes in Nigeria. Journal of Rice Research, 03(02), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.4172/2375-4338.1000136

National Bureau of Statistics [NBS]. (2016). The population of Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bereau of Statistics Abuja, Nigeria. Retrieved from www.nigeriastat.gov.ng

Nin-pratt, A., & Yu, B. (2009). An updated look at the recovery of agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contributed Paper Prepared for Presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, August 16-22, 2009, (202).

Onu, D. O., Obike, K. C., Ebe, F. E., & Okpara, B. O. (2015). Empirical assessment of the trend in rice production and imports in Nigeria ( 1980 – 2013 ). International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Sciences, 5(6), 150–158.

Pan, J., Liu, Y., Zhong, X., Lampayan, R. M., Singleton, G. R., Huang, N., … Tian, K. (2017). Grain yield, water productivity and nitrogen use efficiency of rice under different water management and fertilizer-N inputs in South China. Agricultural Water Management, 184, 191–200. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.01.013

Ragasa, C., & Chapoto, A. (2017). Limits to green revolution in rice in Africa: The case of Ghana. Land Use Policy, 66(April), 304–321. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.04.052

Sanchez-Llerena, J., Lopez-Pineiro, A., Albarran, A., Pena, D., Becerra, D., & Rato-Nunes, J. M. (2016). Short and long-term effects of different irrigation and tillage systems on soil properties and rice productivity under Mediterranean conditions. European Journal of Agronomy, 77, 101–110. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2016.04.005

Sandhu, N., Subedi, S. R., Yadaw, R. B., Chaudhary, B., Prasai, H., Iftekharuddaula, K., … Kumar, A. (2017). Root traits enhancing rice grain yield under alternate wetting and drying condition. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8(October), 1–13. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01879

Sarkar, N., Ghosh, U., & Biswas, K. R. (2018). Effect of drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of summer rice cultivation in pots. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(1), 37–40.

Sharma, S. K., Rana, S. S., Sharma, K. S., Bhargava, M., Sharma, J. J., & Sharma, H. L. (2007). Production potential and economic feasibility of irrigated rice based cropping sequences on cultivators’ fields under sub-montane low hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(1), 110–112.

Sharma, S. K., Rana, S. S., Subehia, S. K., & Negi, S. C. (2015). Production potential of rice-based cropping sequences on farmers’ fields in low hills of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 41(1), 20–24.

Sibayan, E. B., Samoy-Pascual, K., Grospe, F. S., Casil, M. E. D., Tokida, T., Padre, A. T., & Minamikawa, K. (2018). Effects of alternate wetting and drying technique on greenhouse gas emissions from irrigated rice paddy in Central Luzon, Philippines. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 64(1), 39–46. http://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2017.1401906

Soman, P., Singh, S., Bhardwaj, A. K., Pandiaraj, T., & Bhardwaj, R. K. (2018). On-farm drip irrigation in rice for higher productivity and profitability in Haryana, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(02), 506–512.

Suleiman, I. (2016). Nigeria produces 3.5m tonnes of rice and needs 7m tonnes. Vangurad Online News. Nigeria. Retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/nigeria-produces-3.5m-tonnes-rice-needs-7m-tonnes-ogbe

Tanaka, A., Johnson, J. M., Senthilkumar, K., Akakpo, C., Segda, Z., Yameogo, L. P., … Saito, K. (2017). On-farm rice yield and its association with biophysical factors in sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Agronomy, 85, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2016.12.010

Tuong, P., Bouman, B. A. M., & Mortimer, M. (2005). More rice, less Water-integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice-based systems in Asia. Plant Production Science, 8(3), 231–241. http://doi.org/10.1626/pps.8.231

Uduma, B. U., Samson, O. A., & Mure, U. A. (2016). Irrigation potentials and rice self-sufficiency in Nigeria: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(5), 298–309. http://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2015.10284

Xue, W., Lindner, S., Dubbert, M., Otieno, D., Ko, J., Muraoka, H., … Tenhunen, J. (2017). Supplement understanding of the relative importance of biophysical factors in determination of photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic productivity in rice ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 232, 550–565. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.10.009

Yang, J., Zhou, Q., & Zhang, J. (2017). Moderate wetting and drying increases rice yield and reduces water use, grain arsenic level, and methane emission. The Crop Journal, 5(2), 151–158. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2016.06.002

Zhang, H., Li, H., Yuan, L., Wang, Z., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2012). Post-anthesis alternate wetting and moderate soil drying enhances activities of key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion in inferior spikelets of rice. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(1), 215–227. http://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err263

Zhang, H., Xue, Y., Wang, Z., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2009). An alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime improves root and shoot growth in rice. Crop Science, 49(6), 2246–2260. http://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0099

Zhang, H., Yu, C., Kong, X., Hou, D., Gu, J., Liu, L., … Yang, J. (2018). Progressive integrative crop managements increase grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and irrigation water productivity in rice. Field Crops Research, 215, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.09.034

Zhang, L., Wang, G., Zheng, Q., Liu, Y., Yu, D., Shi, X., … Fan, X. (2017). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural management and climate change on soil organic carbon changes in the uplands of eastern China. Soil and Tillage Research, 174(January), 81–91. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2017.06.005

Zhang, W., Zheng, C., & Song, Z. (2015). Farming systems in China: Innovations. Crop Physiology (Second Edi). Elsevier Inc. http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417104-6/00003-0

Zhang, Y., Liu, M., Dannenmann, M., Tao, Y., Yao, Z., Jing, R., … Lin, S. (2017). Benefit of using biodegradable film on rice grain yield and N use efficiency in ground cover rice production system. Field Crops Research, 201, 52–59. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.10.022

Zhang, Z. C., Xue, Y. G., Wang, Z. Q., Yang, J. C., & Zhang, J. H. (2009). The relationship of grain filling with abscisic acid and ethylene under non-flooded mulching cultivation. Journal of Agricultural Science, 147(4), 423–436. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859609008557


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