Tetanus; Risk Factors and Management
Objectives: Our objective was to study tetanus disease risk factors and modes of management and its recovery.
Design & Duration: It is a prospective type of cohort study. Completed in six months from January 2019 to June 2019.
Setting: This study was done in Nishter Hospital Multan
Subjects and Methods: Total 90 patients were studied which were admitted in medical unit of the hospital via OPD or emergency ward. Their age range was 15-30 years. A predesigned proforma was used to document data of each individual patient. A proper written consent was taken from the patients or their attendants for including patient in the study. Consent was also taken from the medical superintendant of the hospital for conducting study. Data was analyzed using Microsoft office (version 20) and results were expressed in the form of tables and charts. Confidence interval was 95% and margin of error was 5%. P-value less than 0.05 was taken significant and more than 0.05 taken non-significant. Frequency and percentages and means calculated. Sample size was determined through WHO software.
Results There were 90 patients studied including 50 males and 40 females. Total mortality rate was 33%, its mean 30 patients out of 90 died. These cases were admitted in ICU under continuous monitoring. Which patients experienced respiratory distress they underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation started. Risk factors in these cases were septic abortion, thorn prick, road traffic accident, household trauma, abscess, ulcer or burn, farm injuries and history of surgical intervention in previous two weeks. Among 40 females 24(60%) were high risk and presented in critical condition despite all measures and ventilator support 16(40%) died. Similarly out of 50 males 14(28%) were high risk patients and among them 13(28.2%) cases died despite all measures taken.
Conclusion: Tetanus is a life taking disease most common in underdeveloped and developing countries. In south asia it has high frequency. In this study mortality rate was more in females than males. All these cases were non-immunized against tetanus previously. Hence proper immunization and early diagnosis of the disease may decrease mortality and morbidity to much extent. Early diagnosis and quick management with ICU care and ventilator support are main components of management.
Shanson, D, C. Microbiology in clinical practice 2n d edn Wright, London. Saul Krugman, Robert Ward, Samual L, Kadz: “Tetanus
Kahane SM, Watt JP. Newell K Kellam S, Wright S, Smith, NJ. Reingold A Adler R, Immunization levels and risk factors for low immunization, Coverage among private practices. Pediatrics, 2000; Jun; 105(6): E 73.
Raza SNI, Amjad. M . Shah AA. Prognostic factors in adult tetanus J Post Grade Med Ins. 1997; 8(3,4): 64-7.
Hussein M ., Raza H. Neonatal tetanus in Pakistan. Journal of Pak Institute of Medical Sciences. 1993; (4) 122:198-201.
C. J. Rubidge and A. G. Wesley. Infectious disease. H. M . Coovadia and W .E.K. Loering (edn) Oxford. Paediatrics and child health. 2n d Ed. 1988; 187-97.
Cilia G, Pere ZE Saen Z-Domingue JR Esparaza H, Otero F. Tetanus immunity among injection drug users in Guipzeou (Basque country, Spain) AIDS 1994; 8:271-2.
Billo AG. Management of NNT: Role of mothers in increasing survival. Specialist: 1992; 8:93-100.
Rabbani A. Anwr SM, Zaman S, Ahmad W . Tetanus - A community health problem in Hazara div. JAMC Vol:09 No:01, 1997; 22-24.
Naheed T, Khan S. Tetanus in adult population: uncommon mode of transmission. Pak. J. Med. Sci 1999; Vol:15, No:02, 119-24.
Tayyab S, Samad JN. “Illegally induced abortions” 1996; JCPSP. 6(2): 104-106.
Kurtoglu S, Caksen H, Ozturk A. Neside Cetin Hakan Pyran Zoglu. A review of 207 new borns with Tetanus J. Pak. Med. Associ. 1998; 48(4): 93-97.
Rathore AH, Hussain R, Pervaiz A, Alim I. Conservative treatment of severe form of Tetanus: A comparative study of the three regimens. Specialist Pakistan J. Med. Sci. 1994; 10(4): 339-343, ISSN 1017-4699.
Sesw S, 0; Block, A.V.T. Heron. Epidemiology of Tetanus in Denmark 1920-82 Scand J. Inf Disease 1987; 19(4); 4378-44.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.