Egypt in Historical Perspective: Some Thoughts

Mathias Chukwudi Isiani

Abstract


Ancient Egypt was gifted with visionary Pharaohs who maximized the gift of the Nile to build one of the famous ancient civilizations in the world. The country emerged from an economy of hunters and gatherers to a viable economy that attracted foreigners like Alexander the Great, Romans, Ottoman Turks and the British raj. Indeed, Egypt was a melting pot of cultures. These foreign influences further harnessed the achievements of the Pharaohs that in modern times Egypt is now a tourist country endowed with Egyptian beautiful architectural designs and mummies. However, in recent past, the reverse is the case as the country is inextricably tied to a political, social and economic convulsion which emanated from the traumatic wave of Arab Spring. It is from this background that this paper seeks to examine how Egypt, a country renowned as a cradle of human civilisation degenerate into a nation that has lost its compass. Tourism which contributed immensely to the economy hitherto to this present time has dissipated as foreigners flee the country for insecurity. To this effect, this work employs multi qualitative method of narrative and case studies towards actualizing the purpose of this research. It is expected that this paper will benefit political analysts and policy makers in designing practicable solutions to the numerous political, economic and social problems confronting the state of Egypt. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide analytical information on the current state of the country through narrating the historical development of the country.


Keywords


Egypt; Pharaohs; Civilisations; Arab Spring; Instabilities; Underdevelopment.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acemoglu, D., Hassn, T.A., and Tahoun, A. (2014). The Powers of the Streets- Evidence from

Egypt’s Arab Spring. Cambridge: Working Paper 20665 National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series.

Bakr, N. (2011). Lack of Tolerances and the Arab Revolutions. Lebanon: The Arab Net Work

for Tolerance.

Blitz, D. (2014). The Arab Spring: A Parsimonious Explanation of recent Continuous

Politics. Netherlands; A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree: Master of Science in Political Science Nijmegan School of Management Radboud University Nijmegen.

Buah, F.K. (1978). The Ancient World. London; Macmillan Education Limited.

Chick, K. (December 13, 2017). Egypt’s Civil Society Is on Life Support. FP News.

https://fpnews.com/2017/12/13/egypt’s-civil-society-is-on-life-support.

Dahrendohf, R. (2008). Modern Social Conflict. London:

Daily News Egypt. (July 9, 2018). Head of Egyptian Customs Authority arrested over

corruption charges. July 9, 2018. https://dailynewsegypt.com/2018/07/09/head-ofegyptian-customs-authority-arrested-over-corrption-charges/

Daily News Egypt. (December 13, 2017). 8 officials arrested on corruption charges;

https://dailynewsegypt.com/2017/12/13/8-officials-arrested-corruption-charges/

David, D. K. and David, E. S. (2011). A Tunisian-Egyptian Link that Shook Arab History;

The New York Times: 13 February. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/14/world/middleeast/14egypt-tunisia-protests.html.

Egypt Inflation Rate; https://tradingeconomics.com/Egypt/inflation-cpi

Egypt Today. (2016-2019). Timeline of Terrorist Attacks.

https://www.egypttoday.com/articl/2/34116/Timeline-of-terrorist-attacks-on-Egyptian-worshipers-2016-2019

Egypt’s Economic Update. (April 1, 2019). World Bank Group (US)|

https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/egypt/publication/economic-monitor-april-2019

El-Fekki, A. (May 6, 2018). Automation is Egypt’s Ultimate Solution to facing Corruption;

APA Spokesperson. Daily News. https://dailynewsegypt.com/2018/05/06/automation-egypts-ultimate-solution-facing-corruption-apa-spokesperson/

El-Mallakh N (2017). Did the Egyptian Protest lead to Change? Evidence from Egypt’s First

Free Presidential Elections. Universite Paris; Document de Travail du Centre d’ Economic de la Sorbonne. CES Working Papers.

El-Menilawy, O. (May 6, 2018). Lack of Foreign Currency Resources, Administrative

Corruption is the Biggest Challenges Facing Egypt. Daily News. https://dailynewsegypt.com/2018/05/06/lack-of-foreign-currency-resources-administrative-corruption-are-the-biggest-challenges-facing-egypt/

Farooq, S., Bukhari, S., Ahmed, M. (2013). “Arab Spring and the Theory of Relative Deprivation.” International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol 8 No 1. 126-132.

Gardiner, A. (1961). Egypt of the Pharaohs: An Introduction. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigerian Library. DT 83. G221.

Goldschmidt, A. Jr. (2008). A Brief History of Egypt. New York; 1001, 132 West 31st street

Infobase Publishing.

Gosse, A. B. (1915). The Civilization of the Ancient Egyptians. London: T.C & E.C Jack ltd

&36 Paternoster row. Vol 2 of ‘Through the eye’ series.

Goucher, C. And Walton L. (2013). World History, Journeys from Past to Present. London;

Taylor and Francis Group Publication- Routledge imprint. Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka. D 24. G7185.

Green, D (2011, 17 February). “What caused the Revolution in Egypt?” The Guardian. Available

at: http://www.guardian.com.

Hall J W and Kirk J G (2015). History of the World; Earliest Times to the Present Day. East

Bridgewater: World Publications Group Inc.

Hunt, B.N. (2009). Living in Ancient Egypt. New York; 132 west w 31st street, Chelsea

House*Infobase Publishing.

Inbar E (2013). The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security, Domestic and International

Ramifications. New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Isseroff, A. History of Egypt. http://www.mideastweb.org/egypthistory.htm

Khaul, M. (May 30, 2019). Obstetric Violence: The Silent Epidemic in Egypt’s Maternal Health System. Egyptian Street News; https://egyptianstreets.com/2019/05/30/obstetric-violence-the-silent-epidemic-in-egypts-maternal-health-system.

Landler, M. (April 9, 2019). “Egypt’s President. Hoping to be Allowed to Stay in Office Until

Basks in Trump’s Embrace.” The New York Times, https://www.nytimes-com/2019/04/09/us/politics/trump-abdel-fattah-el-sisi.html

Magdy, S. (May 19, 2019), At least 17 injured as Bomb strikes tourist Bus Near Egypt’s

GizaPyramids. Time News; time.com/5591588/bomb-egypt-giza-pyramids/

Mcneill, H. W. (1963). The Rise of the West; A History of the Human Community. Chicago:

The University of Chicago Press. Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka. C B 59 .M169.

Meredith M (2011). The State of Africa: A History of the Continent since Independence.

London: Simon & Schuster- A CBS Company.

Moret, A. (1927). The Nile and Egyptian Civilization. London: Iegan Paul, Trench, Trubner

&- Co. Ltd Rezssued 1972 by Routledge &- Kegan Paul Ltd.

Mulderig, M. C. (April 2013). An Uncertain Future: Youth Frustration and the Arab

Spring. Boston University; The Fredrick S Pardee Center for the study of the Longer-Range Future. The Pardee Papers/No.16/

Olivares-Escobedo, R. E. and Weaver, P. (2002). Ancient Egypt. T&L 819 Dr Paul Garcia.

Rawlinson, G. and Gilman, A. (1897). The Story of Ancient Egypt. London; G.P. Putnam’s

Sons * T. Fisher Unwin.

Reece, K. E. (2006). The Egyptian Builders of the Pyramids. Rourke Publishing LLC.

Rice, M. (1999). Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt. London and New York: Michael and Francis-

Routledge Publication.

Ritner, K. R (1993). “The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptians Magical Practice.” Studies in Ancient

Oriental Civilizations. No 54. Illinois; The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Rossi, C. (2003). Architecture and Mathematics in Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom:

Cambridge University Press.

Spalinger, J. A. (2005). War in Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom. USA: Blackwell

Publishing Ltd.* Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data.

Starr, G. C. (1974). A History of the Ancient World. New York: Oxford University Press.

(2ed). Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka. D, 59. S796.

Teeter, E. (1997). The Presentation of Maat Ritual and Legitimacy in Ancient Egypt. Studies

in Ancient Oriental Civilation. No.57. Illinois; The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Teeter, E. (2011). Before the Pyramids; The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. Oriental

Insitute Museum Publications 33. Illinois; The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Tisdall, S. (June 3, 2019). Sudan; How Arab Autocrats Conspired to Thwart Reformists’

Hopes. The Guardian; https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/june/03/sudnese-crackdown-comes-after-talks-with-egypt-and-saudis

Toynbee, J. A. (1948). A Study of History. Oxford; Issued under the Auspices of the Royal

Institute of International Affairs, Volume III, Oxford University Press. Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka. CB 63. T756.

Trading Economics; Corruption Perception Index Report;

https://tradingeconomics.com/Egypt/corruption-index

Transparency International. (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010.

https://www.transparency.org/policy_research_indices/cpi/2010:8-14.

Trigger, B.G. (1993). Early Civilizations Ancient Egypt in Context. Cairo; The American

University in Cairo Press (1st ed).

Wallbank, T.W., Taylor, M.A., Bailkey, N.M. (1976). Civilization; Past and Present.

Glenview, Illinois; Scott, Foresman and Company, Vol one, 7thed. Nnamdi Azikiwe library catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka, C B 69 .C582.

Well, H.G. (1956). The Outline of History; Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind.

London: Cassell and Company LTD. University of Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka. D 20 W454.

Wilson, A. J. (1951). The Burden of Egypt. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Nnamdi Azikiwe Library Catalogue, University of Nigeria Nsukka. C B 37 .M148.


Refbacks

  • »


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.