Illiterate Mothers; A Common Risk Factor Of Severe Anemia Among Childen Below 10 Years Of Age

Sameia Naeem, Najma Ahmed, Sidra Jalil khan

Abstract


Objective: To determine common risk factors of severe anemia among children below 10 years of age

Design and duration:  This is a prospective study completed in duration of eight months from July 2019 to February 2020

Setting: Study was conducted in Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur.

Patients & methods: Children below ten years of age presenting to the study hospital with the complaint of severe anemia were included in the study. These cases were not having any obvious other morbidity causing anemia. Complete blood count and blood morphology was done in every child. Hemoglobin level below 7g/dl was taken as severe anemia in this study. Confidence interval was 95%, margin of error 5%. P-value less than 0.05 was taken significant. Percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviation calculated using SPSS software. Results presented via tables and graphs. Consent was taken from guardians of children for including their children in the study. Educational status of mothers was determined.

Results: Total 75 children having anemia were studied. Age range was 6months to 10 years with mean age of 4.7±3.2 years. There were 24% cases between 25-36 months. In most of the children 56% hemoglobin was 5-6 g/dl. Mostly mothers were having education below matriculation.

Conclusion: Illiteracy among mothers of our country is a common risk factor of severe anemia in their children. Increasing literacy rate can reduce incidence of this disease and nutritional status of children and nursing mothers can be improved as well.

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO global database on anaemia.

Bhutta ZA, Soofi SB, Zaidi SS, Habib A. Pakistan National Nutrition Survey, 2011.

Greenbaum LA. Micronutrient mineral deficiencies. in: Kliegman RM, StantonBF, Schor NF, St. Geme JW, Behrman RE (Eds.) Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.20th edition. Saunders, Philadelphia; 2016. p. 343-345

World Health Organization. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. 2011. Download from: http:// www. who. int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin. pdf. 2015.

Habib MA, Black K, Soofi SB, Hussain I, Bhatti Z, Bhutta ZA, et al. (2016) Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0155051. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0155051

Paracha PI, Hameed A, Simon J, Jamil A, Nawab G. Prevalence of Anaemia in Semi-Urban Areas of Peshawar, Pakistan-A Challenge for Health Professionals and Policy Makers. Journal-Pakistan medical association. 1997 Feb; 47:49-53.

Gebreegziabiher G, Etana B, Niggusie D. Determinants of anemia among children aged 6–59 months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia. Anemia. 2014 Sep 15;2014.

Sinha AK, Padmavathi P, Dubey RK, Gautam N, Archana

a. Prevalence of anemia amongst children under 59 months old in south western Nepal. International journal of pharmaceutical care and health care. 2013 August issue 3 volume 3

Gao W, Yan H, Dang S, Pei L. Severity of anemia among children under 36 months old in rural western China.

PloS one. 2013 Apr 23; 8(4):e62883.

Ngui R, Lim YA, Kin LC, Chuen CS, Jaffar S. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2012 Mar 6; 6(3):e1550.

Uddin MK, Sardar MH, Hossain MZ, Alam MM, Bhuya MF, Uddin MM, Rahman MJ. Prevalence of anaemia in children of 6 months to 59 months in Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Journal of Dhaka Medical College. 2010;

19(2):126-30.

Onyemaobi GA, Ikoku A. Anaemia prevalence among under-five children in Imo State, Nigeria. Australian

Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011; 5(2):122-

Muoneke VU, ChidiIbekwe R. Prevalence and aetiology of severe anaemia in under-5 children in Abakaliki South Eastern Nigeria. Pediatr Therapeut. 2011; 1(3):107.

Ayoya MA, Ngnie-Teta I, Séraphin MN, Mamadoultaibou A, Boldon E, Saint-Fleur JE, Koo L, Bernard S. Prevalence and risk factors of anemia among children 6–59 months old in Haiti. Anemia. 2013 Mar 10; 2013.

Saba F, Poornima S, Balaji PA, Varne SR, Jayashree Anemia among hospitalized children at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka), India. Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2014 Jan; 3(1):48.

Ziegler EE. Consumption of cow’s milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Nutrition reviews. 2011 Nov 1; 69(s1).

Gunnarsson BS, Thorsdottir I, Palsson G. Iron status in 2-year-old Icelandic children and associations with dietary intake and growth. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2004 Jun 1; 58(6):901.

Boutry M, Needlman R. Use of diet history in the screening of iron deficiency. Pediatrics. 1996 Dec 1;98(6):1138-42.

Woldie H, Kebede Y, Tariku A. Factors associated with anemia among children aged 6–23 months attending growth monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2015 May 27; 2015.

Simbauranga RH, Kamugisha E, Hokororo A, Kidenya BR, Makani J. Prevalence and factors associated with severe anaemia amongst under-five children hospitalized at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania. BMC hematology. 2015 Oct 12; 15(1):13.

Ullah I, Zahid M, Sthanadar AA, Sthanadar IA, Ali PA, Khan MI, Kaleem M, Aslam M, Ullah W. Iron Deficiency Anemia in School Age Children in District Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Open Journal of Blood Diseases. 2014 Jun 24; 4(02):9.

Ntenda PA, Chuang KY, Tiruneh FN, Chuang YC. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Individual-and Community-Level Factors on Childhood Anemia, Severe Anemia, and Hemoglobin Concentration in Malawi. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2017 Jul 27


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.