Prevalence of Hypertension in India: A Review

Ramanpreet Randhawa, Jaspreet Kaur, Sharda Sidhu


Worldwide, hypertension is a silent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the prevalence of hypertension in various urban and rural populations of India. 88 cross-sectional studies which defined hypertension as an average blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg have been reviewed with sample size varied from 200–1,67,331 subjects. It is apparent from the literature that there are no nationwide studies to determine the prevalence of hypertension but small sporadic studies from the different regions of India provided data which has shown wide variation in the prevalence of hypertension. The present review has highlighted high prevalence of hypertension in India. An increasing trend in the prevalence of hypertension overtime was observed within different regions of India and in both sexes. The prevalence of hypertension is higher in urban populations of India compared to rural populations but the prevalence of hypertension in rural populations is steadily increasing and approaching to the trends as in urban populations. The proportion of hypertensive subjects in urban and rural populations in some regions was about 50% which is a challenge to the Indian health system. Therefore, accurate estimates of prevalence of hypertension are necessary which can help in shaping the preventive programmes and management strategies for the hypertension in both urban and rural populations.


Blood pressure, cross-sectional studies, hypertension, India, prevalence, rural population, urban population

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As this is a review article, about 123 references have been mentioned in the text of this article which are given at the end of the text.


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