Antifungal activity of gliotoxin from Trichoderma viride against Fusarium sp and Alternaria Sp.

Muthukumar Elangovan



    Biological control involves the use of beneficial micro-organism to attack and control plant pathogens. Biological control offers an environmentally approach to the management of plant disease and can be incorporated into cultural and physical control for an effective integrated pest management system. Trichoderma viride is one such beneficial fungus that has antagonistic effect on the different foliar diseases caused by pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium and Alternaria species. The aim of present study involves to isolated Trichoderma viride from air and rhizosphere region of soil. The biochemical characterisation of the strain was performed, followed by the extraction and identification of toxin. Identification of toxin was done by comparing with the standard Rf values of antifungal antibiotics. The toxin was found to be gliotoxin. To find out the antagonistic effect of Trichoderma viride, the different pathogenic fungi like Fusarium and Alternaria species were transferred from the agar slant into the petridishes containing the czapek-dox agar media. Filter paper discs dipped into the toxin of Trichoderma viride were placed around the test organisms and the zone of inhibition was found around the discs.



Trichoderma viride, gliotoxin, biological control, fungus, Alternaria, Fusarium

Full Text:



Benitez T, Rincon AM, Limon MC, Codon AC (2004) Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains. International Microbiology 7: 249-260.

Brian PW, Hemming HG (1945) Gliotoxin, a fungistatic metabolic product of Trichoderma viride. Ann Appl Biol 32: 214-220.

Brian, PW (1944) Production of Gliotoxin by Trichoderma viride. Nature 154: 667-668.

Brown HL, Bruce A (1999) Assessment of the biocontrol potential of a Trichoderma viride isolate Part I: Establishment of field and fungal cellar trials, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 44: 219–223.

Celar F, Valic N (2005) Effects of Trichoderma spp and Glicladium roseum culture filtrates on seed germination of vegetables and maize. J Plant Dis Prot. 112: 343-350.

Chet I, Inbar J, Hadar I (1997) Fungal antagonists and mycoparasites. In: Wicklow DT, Söderström B (eds) The Mycota IV: Environmental and microbial relationships. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 165-184.

Cook RJ (2000) Advances in plant health management in the 20th century. Annual Review of Phytopathology 38: 95-116.

Corley DG, Miller-Wideman M, Durley RC (1994) Isolation and Structure of harzianum: a new trichothecene from Trichoderma harzianum. J Nat Prod 57: 422-425.

Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson T (1980) Compendium of Soil Fungi, Academic A subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publisher, London, New York, Sydney.

Elad YI, Chet I, Doyle P, Henis Y (1982) Parasitism of Trichoderma sp. On Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfi. Scanning microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. Phytopathology 72: 85-88.

Environmental Protective Agency (EPA) website, (2008).

Gilreath P (2002) Manatee Vegetable Newsletter,University of Florida, Manatee County Extension Service, January/February 2002.

Gottlieb D, Ammann A, Carter HE (1955) A new antifungal agent, filipin. Plant Dis. Rep 39: 219.

Hallmann J, Quadt-Hallmann A, Miller WG, Sikora RA, Lindow SE (2001) Endophyte Colonization of Plants by Biocontrol Agent Rhizobium etli G12 in Relation to Meloidogyne incognita Infection. Phytopathology 91: 415-422.

Haran S, Schinckler H, Chet I (1996) Molecular mechanism of lytic enzymes involved in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma harzianum. Microbiology 142: 2312-2331.

Harborne JB (1998) Phytochemical methods (1st ed.), Chapman and Hall, London. U.K. 503-503.

Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M (2004) Trichoderma species-opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nat Rev Microbiol 2: 43-56.

Kerry BR (1987) Biological Control, In, Principles and Practices of Nematode Control in Crops, RH Brown and BR Kerry (editors), Academic Press, New York, 233-263.

Lowry H, Rosebrough NI, Far AL, Ranall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265-75.

Meyer SLF, Roberts DP, Chitwood DJ, Carta LK, Lumsden RD, Mao W (2001) Application of Burkholderia cepacia and Trichoderma virens, alone and in combinations, against Meloidogyne incognita on bell pepper, Nematropica 31: 75-86.

Mohiddin FA, Khan MR, Khan SM, Bhat BH (2010) Why Trichoderma is considered super hero (Super fungus) against the evil parasites? Plant Pathology journal 19: 138-148.

Monte E (2001) Editorial Paper: Understanding Trichoderma: Between Agricultural Biotechnology and Microbial Ecology. Int Microbiol 4: 1-4.

Papavizas GC (1985) Trichoderma and Gliocladium: Biology, Ecology, and Potential for Biocontrol. Annual Review Phytopathology 23:23-54.

Rudresh DL, Shivaprakash MK, d Prasad RD (2005) Tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities of Trichoderma sp. in relation to P uptake and growth and yield parameters of chick pea (Cicer arietinum L). Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51: 217-222.

Samuels GJ (1996) Trichoderma: a review of biology and systematics of the genus. Mycological Research 100: 923-93.

Samuels GJ, Sarah LD, Walter G, Lisa AC, Orlando P (2002) Trichoderma species associated with the green mold epidemic of commercially grown Agaricus bisporus Mycologia 94: 146–170.

Sharon E, Bar-Eyal M, Chet I, Herrara-Estrella A, Kleifeld O, Spiegle Y (2001) Biological Control of the Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 91: 687-693.

Stirling GR (1991) Biological Control of Plant ParasiticNematodes, CAB International, Wallington, UK, 282.

Ubalua AO and Oti E (2007) Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest cassava root rot pathogens. African Journal of Biotechnology 6: 2447-2450.

Weindling R (1934) Studies on lethal principle effective in the parasitic action of Trichoderma lignorum on Rhizoctonia solani and other fungi. Phytopathology 24: 1153-1179.

Weindling R (1937) The isolation of toxic substance from culture filtrates of Trichoderma and Gliocadium. Phytopathology 27: 1175-1177

Weindling R, Emerson H (1936) The isolation of toxic substance from the culture filtrates of Trichoderma. Phytopathology 26: 1068-1070

Whipps JM (2001) Microbial Interactions and Biocontrol in the rhizosphere, Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 487-511.

Zhihe C, Qingping W, Lihong X, Xiaoyan Z, Jumei Z (1998) Advance of biocontrol of Trichoderma and Gliocladium. J Microbiol 25: 284-286.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.