India is currently standing in a phase of demographic transition. Over the next four decades India’s population ages 60 and older is projected to ascend from 8 percent in 2010 to 19% in 2050. There is gradual decline physiological reserve in organs, and immune status over the time in elderly people. This make them victim of many infective and degenerative diseases. The ability to adapt to various physical and psychological stress also decline. To tackle the condition of geriatric problems there is a unique specialized therapy in Ayurveda called Rasayana. Rasayana help in attaining excellence of body tissue with optimum functionality even during old age. There are many Ayurvedaic herbs in Ayurveda classics described as Rasayana drugs. This study is carried out with an aim to review the actions of commonly used Rasayana drugs. It is found that some commonly used Rasayana drugs are Emblica officinalis, Sida cordifolia, Semicarpus anacardium, Tinospora cordifolia, Centella asiatica, Piper longum, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Anethum sowa, Shilajit, Terminalia chebula , Embelia ribes, and Glycyrrhiza glabra. These drugs act as Rasayana by the actions like antioxidant, immune-modulatory, hemopoetic, adaptogenic, nutritive function and neuroprotective.


Rasayana, Antioxidant, Aging, immune-modulatory

Full Text:



India’s Aging Population [Internet]. Washington: P o p u l a t i o n R e f e r e n c e B u r e a u; 2012. Report No.: 25. Available from: http://www.prb.org/Publications/Reports/2012/india-older-population.aspx

Miquel J. An integrated theory of aging as the result of mitochondrial-DNA mutation in differentiated cells. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1991 Mar;12(2–3):99–117.

Sell DR, Monnier VM. Structure elucidation of a senescence cross-link from human extracellular matrix. Implication of pentoses in the aging process. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 25;264(36):21597–602.

Beckman KB, Ames BN. The Free Radical Theory of Aging Matures. Physiol Rev. 1998 Apr 1;78(2):547–81.

Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha elaborated by Charaka and Drudhabala Volume II edited with Charaka Chandrika Hindi Commentry along with special delebration and appendices etc , Chikitsasthana, Chapter-1/1, Verse No-7-8, Page-5 Edited by: Dr. Brahmanand Tripathy Published by Choukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi Edition Fifth Edition 1998.

Bhattacharya A, Chatterjee A, Ghoshal S, Bhattacharya SK. Antioxidant activity of active tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (amla). Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Jul;37:676–80.

Ojha S, Golechha M, Kumari S, Arya DS. Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011 Oct 27;0748233711413798.

Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Deepti P, Vandana M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, et al. Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages. Phytother Res. 2003;17(4):430–3.

Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbioni C. Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1–2):113–8.

Haque R, Bin-Hafeez B, Ahmad I, Parvez S, Pandey S, Raisuddin S. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Dec 1;20(12):643–50.

Sumanth M, Mustafa SS. Antistress, Adoptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009;71(3):323–4.

Dhalwal K, Deshpande Y s., Purohit A p., Kadam S s. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Sida cordifolia. Pharm Biol. 2005 Jan 1;43(9):754–61.

Khan HBH, Vinayagam KS, Sekar A, Palanivelu S, Panchanadham S. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nut Milk Extract in a High-Fat Diet STZ-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model. J Diet Suppl. 2012 Feb 14;9(1):19–33.

Verma N, Vinayak M. Semecarpus anacardium nut extract promotes the antioxidant defence system and inhibits anaerobic metabolism during development of lymphoma. Biosci Rep. 2009 Jun 1;29(3):151.

Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCL4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2002;27(3):139–46.

Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R, et al. An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999 Nov;52(6):1089–93.

S M, G K. Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia and its usefulness in the amelioration of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity. J Exp Clin Cancer Res CR. 1997 Dec;16(4):407–11.

Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS, Patro B, Ghosh AC. Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian J Pharmacol. 2003;35(2):83–91.

Kapil A, Sharma S. Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Oct;58(2):89–95.

Jayashree G, Kurup Muraleedhara G, Sudarslal S, Jacob VB. Anti-oxidant activity of Centella asiatica on lymphoma-bearing mice. Fitoterapia. 2003 Jul;74(5):431–4.

Zainol MK, Abd-Hamid A, Yusof S, Muse R. Antioxidative activity and total phenolic compounds of leaf, root and petiole of four accessions of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Food Chem. 2003 Jun;81(4):575–81.

Subathra M, Shila S, Devi MA, Panneerselvam C. Emerging role of Centella asiatica in improving age-related neurological antioxidant status. Exp Gerontol. 2005 Aug;40(8–9):707–15.

Tripathi DM, Gupta N, Lakshmi V, Saxena KC, Agrawal AK. Antigiardial and immunostimulatory effect of Piper longum on giardiasis due to Giardia lamblia†. Phytother Res. 1999;13(7):561–5.

Sunila ES, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Piper longum Linn. and piperine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2–3):339–46.

Sunila ES, Kuttan G. Protective effect of Piper longum fruit ethanolic extract on radiation induced damages in mice: A preliminary study. Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec;76(7–8):649–55.

Tanaka M, Ishii A, Yamano E, Ogikubo H, Okazaki M, Kamimura K, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in elderly females with depressive symptoms. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18(12):CR706–11.

Bihaqi SW, Singh AP, Tiwari M. In vivo investigation of the neuroprotective property of Convolvulus pluricaulis in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in Wistar rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(5):520–5.

Riddhi MP, Yogesh TJ. Antioxidant activity of medicinal spices and aromatic herbs. [cited 2014 Dec 30]; Available from: http://ukaazpublications.com/attached/publications/C-11%20Antioxidant.pdf

Selen Isbilir S, Sagiroglu A. Antioxidant Potential of Different Dill (Anethum Graveolens L.) Leaf Extracts. Int J Food Prop. 2011 Jul 1;14(4):894–902.

Bhattacharyya S, Pal D, Gupta AK, Ganguly P, Majumder UK, Ghosal S. Beneficial effect of processed shilajit on swimming exercise induced impaired energy status of mice. Pharmacologyonline. 2009;1:817–25.

Bhattacharya SK, Sen AP, Ghosal S. Effects of shilajit on biogenic free radicals. Phytother Res. 1995;9(1):56–9.

Rege A, Juvekar P, Juvekar A. In vitro antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of Shilajit. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;4(2):650–3.

Saleem A, Husheem M, Härkönen P, Pihlaja K. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Aug 1;81(3):327–36.

Lee H-S, Jung S-H, Yun B-S, Lee K-W. Isolation of chebulic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. and its antioxidant effect in isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2007 Mar 1;81(3):211–8.

Nazam Ansari M, Bhandari U, Islam F, Tripathi C d. Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Embelia ribes Burm in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22(3):305–14.

Bhandari U, Jain N, Pillai KK. Further Studies on Antioxidant Potential and Protection of Pancreatic β-Cells by Embelia ribes in Experimental Diabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2007 Apr 11;2007:e15803.

Haraguchi H, Yoshida N, Ishikawa H, Tamura Y, Mizutani K, Kinoshita T. Protection of Mitochondrial Functions against Oxidative Stresses by Isoflavans from Glycyrrhiza glabra. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000;52(2):219–23.

Dhingra D, Parle M, Kulkarni SK. Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2–3):361–5.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.